background preloader

Consequentialism

Consequentialism
Consequentialism is usually distinguished from deontological ethics (or deontology), in that deontology derives the rightness or wrongness of one's conduct from the character of the behaviour itself rather than the outcomes of the conduct. It is also distinguished from virtue ethics, which focuses on the character of the agent rather than on the nature or consequences of the act (or omission) itself, and pragmatic ethics which treats morality like science: advancing socially over the course of many lifetimes, such that any moral criterion is subject to revision. Consequentialist theories differ in how they define moral goods. Some argue that consequentialist and deontological theories are not necessarily mutually exclusive. Consequentialist philosophies[edit] State consequentialism[edit] Mozi supported a communitarian form of consequentialism, rather than individual pleasure or pain.[4] Utilitarianism[edit] Ethical egoism[edit] Ethical altruism[edit] Rule consequentialism[edit] Related:  Philosophy of Science and Religion

Scientism Scientism is a term used to refer to belief in the universal applicability of the scientific method and approach, and the view that empirical science constitutes the most authoritative worldview or most valuable part of human learning to the exclusion of other viewpoints.[1] It has been defined as "the view that the characteristic inductive methods of the natural sciences are the only source of genuine factual knowledge and, in particular, that they alone can yield true knowledge about man and society. Scientism may refer to science applied "in excess". The term scientism can apply in either of two senses: To indicate the improper usage of science or scientific claims. This usage applies equally in contexts where science might not apply,[12] such as when the topic is perceived to be beyond the scope of scientific inquiry, and in contexts where there is insufficient empirical evidence to justify a scientific conclusion. Overview[edit] E. Relevance to science/religion debates[edit]

Google: The World’s Most Ethical Company? - BOSS DIGITAL Ask any SEO battling with the latest algorithm update to describe Google and ‘ethical’ is not the first word likely to spring to mind. But this year, research organisation Ethisphere have voted Google one of the world’s most ethical companies (WME). According to Ethisphere, ‘WME honorees not only promote ethical business standards and practices internally, they exceed legal compliance minimums and shape future industry standards by introducing best practices today.’ In the 2014 winners’ list, cynical readers will point out that Google is not just the most ethical company in the Computer Services category, it is the only company in the Computer Services category. This is also the first year that there has been a Computer Services category. Company Culture In terms of company culture, we know that Google tries hard to cultivate a fun and stimulating working environment. Google’s Wider Impact Google is not afraid to voice its opinions on social issues, including LGBT rights. Don’t Be Evil

Age of Enlightenment The Age of Enlightenment (or simply the Enlightenment or Age of Reason) was a cultural movement of intellectuals beginning in late 17th-century Europe emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition.[1] Its purpose was to reform society using reason, to challenge ideas grounded in tradition and faith, and to advance knowledge through the scientific method. It promoted scientific thought, skepticism, and intellectual interchange.[2] The Enlightenment was a revolution in human thought. This new way of thinking was that rational thought begins with clearly stated principles, uses correct logic to arrive at conclusions, tests the conclusions against evidence, and then revises the principles in the light of the evidence. Enlightenment thinkers opposed superstition and intolerance. Use of the term[edit] If there is something you know, communicate it. Chartier (1991) argues that the Enlightenment was only invented after the fact for a political goal. Time span[edit] Greece[edit]

Civil Service Commission | Publications | Values and Ethics Guide This has been developed to provide a guide for conduct by Manitoba civil servants and support them in all of their work-related and professional activities as well it contributes to maintaining and enhancing public confidence in Manitoba's civil service. Our Role; Application; Act in the Public Interest; Act with Integrity; Act with Respect for Others; Act with Skill and Dedication; Thinking it Through; For More Information - Contact; References Our Role The public service plays an essential role in our democratic way of life, faithfully serving the people of Manitoba through their duly elected government. The public service affects the day-to-day lives of Manitoba communities and individuals. Civil servants provide advice on options available to achieve the government’s policies and the consequences of each option. All civil servants hold a unique position of trust. Act in the public interest Act with integrity Act with respect for others Act with skill and dedication top of page 1.

Metaphysics Metaphysics is a traditional branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world that encompasses it,[1] although the term is not easily defined.[2] Traditionally, metaphysics attempts to answer two basic questions in the broadest possible terms:[3] What is ultimately there?What is it like? Prior to the modern history of science, scientific questions were addressed as a part of metaphysics known as natural philosophy. Etymology[edit] However, once the name was given, the commentators sought to find intrinsic reasons for its appropriateness. There is a widespread use of the term in current popular literature which replicates this error, i.e. that metaphysical means spiritual non-physical: thus, "metaphysical healing" means healing by means of remedies that are not physical.[8] Origins and nature of metaphysics[edit] Central questions[edit] Being, existence and reality[edit] The nature of Being is a perennial topic in metaphysics. Mind and matter[edit]

Deontology - By Branch / Doctrine - The Basics of Philosophy Introduction | Kant's Categorical Imperative | Criticisms of Deontology | Other Types of Deontology Deontology (or Deontological Ethics) is an approach to Ethics that focuses on the rightness or wrongness of actions themselves, as opposed to the rightness or wrongness of the consequences of those actions (Consequentialism) or to the character and habits of the actor (Virtue Ethics). Thus, to a Deontologist, whether a situation is good or bad depends on whether the action that brought it about was right or wrong. What makes a choice "right" is its conformity with a moral norm: Right takes priority over Good. Deontology may sometimes be consistent with Moral Absolutism (the belief that some actions are wrong no matter what consequences follow from them), but not necessarily. It is sometimes described as "duty-based" or "obligation-based" ethics, because Deontologists believe that ethical rules bind people to their duty.

Positivism Positivism is a philosophy of science based on the view that information derived from logical and mathematical treatments and reports of sensory experience is the exclusive source of all authoritative knowledge,[1] and that there is valid knowledge (truth) only in scientific knowledge.[2] Verified data received from the senses are known as empirical evidence.[1] This view holds that society, like the physical world, operates according to general laws. Introspective and intuitive knowledge is rejected. Although the positivist approach has been a recurrent theme in the history of Western thought,[3] the modern sense of the approach was developed by the philosopher and founding sociologist Auguste Comte in the early 19th century.[4] Comte argued that, much as the physical world operates according to gravity and other absolute laws, so also does society.[5] Etymology[edit] Overview[edit] Antecedents[edit] Auguste Comte[edit] Antipositivism[edit] Logical positivism and postpositivism[edit]

What Do Starbucks Locations Really Say About Income and Diversity in America? Eater used U.S. Census data to analyze the economic and racial makeup surrounding every Starbucks location in the country as of October 2015. This map pinpoints five cities in which Starbucks plans to open in low-income and minority neighborhoods. Select a city to see where Starbucks locations fall on an income map. Despite a long-standing association with wealth and gentrification, Starbucks has recently been making efforts to outreach to low-income and minority communities. Starbucks announced in July that it was eyeing low-to-medium-income neighborhoods in at least five cities, including two cities — Ferguson, Missouri and Milwaukee — where the police-involved shootings of unarmed black men sparked national outcry. Credit: Leon Neal/AFP/Getty Images The goal is to support economic and social change, according to a statement from Starbucks. U.S. Chicago offers a striking illustration of the bind. There is more hope for the smaller cities on the list.

"ZEITGEIST, Part 1" Debunked? NOT! "ZEITGEIST, Part 1" - Debunked or Refuted? A Video Response The intriguing internet movie "ZEITGEIST" has been an astounding hit, with over 15 million views worldwide in English and several other languages. In the past several months, there have been many claims on websites and in forums and videos all over the internet that the first part of ZEITGEIST has been "refuted" and "debunked." First of all, let me clarify that I was not involved in the creation of ZEITGEIST, other than providing a few images and consulting on Part 1 at the last minute, the result of which was the final, "Official" version. Because of my work's influence on Part 1 of ZEITGEIST, a number of the debunking sites have been directed largely at me and my contentions formulated over the past 15 years. It should be noted that I am not and have never been adverse to reading Christian material or factual rebuttals to my work or that of anyone else. "Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour." P.S.

eu.usatoday Starbucks stores around the country shut down for a day of anti-bias training, and these customers weren't bothered a bit. USA TODAY Starbucks attempted a dramatic move toward racial reconciliation Tuesday as it closed 8,000 stores across the nation for an afternoon of anti-bias training. Up to 180,000 employees at Starbucks stores and at its headquarters received training from a "tool kit" with a "focus on understanding prejudice and the history of public accommodations in the United States." Stores closed for three hours or longer starting at 1 p.m. or 2 p.m., across the U.S. The training followed an incident at a Starbucks store in Philadelphia in April in which a manager called police on two African-American men who were quietly waiting for a friend. More: Starbucks' Howard Schultz on racial bias training: 'It takes moral courage to do this' More: Starbucks racial bias training will include rapper Common, lots of dialogue The sessions began after the lunch rush.

Dialectic Dialectic (also dialectics and the dialectical method) is a method of argument for resolving disagreement that has been central to European and Indian philosophy since antiquity. The word dialectic originated in ancient Greece, and was made popular by Plato in the Socratic dialogues. The dialectical method is discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject, who wish to establish the truth of the matter guided by reasoned arguments.[1] The term dialectics is not synonymous with the term debate. While in theory debaters are not necessarily emotionally invested in their point of view, in practice debaters frequently display an emotional commitment that may cloud rational judgement. The Sophists taught aretē (Greek: ἀρετή, quality, excellence) as the highest value, and the determinant of one's actions in life. Socrates favoured truth as the highest value, proposing that it could be discovered through reason and logic in discussion: ergo, dialectic.

Humanism In modern times, humanist movements are typically aligned with secularism, and today "Humanism" typically refers to a non-theistic life stance centred on human agency, and looking to science instead of religious dogma in order to understand the world.[2] Background The word "Humanism" is ultimately derived from the Latin concept humanitas, and, like most other words ending in -ism, entered English in the nineteenth century. However, historians agree that the concept predates the label invented to describe it, encompassing the various meanings ascribed to humanitas, which included both benevolence toward one's fellow humans and the values imparted by bonae litterae or humane learning (literally "good letters"). In the second century A.D, a Latin grammarian, Aulus Gellius (c. 125– c. 180), complained: Gellius says that in his day humanitas is commonly used as a synonym for philanthropy – or kindness and benevolence toward one's fellow human being. History Predecessors Asia Ancient Greece Types

Critical rationalism Critical rationalism is an epistemological philosophy advanced by Karl Popper. Popper wrote about critical rationalism in his works, The Open Society and its Enemies Volume 2, and Conjectures and Refutations. Criticism, not support[edit] Critical rationalists hold that scientific theories and any other claims to knowledge can and should be rationally criticized, and (if they have empirical content) can and should be subjected to tests which may falsify them. Thus claims to knowledge may be contrastingly and normatively evaluated. They are either falsifiable and thus empirical (in a very broad sense), or not falsifiable and thus non-empirical. However, this contrastive, critical approach to objective knowledge is quite different from more traditional views that also hold knowledge to be objective. In this sense, critical rationalism turns the normal understanding of a traditional rationalist, and a realist, on its head. Not justificationism[edit] Are all swans white? 1. See also[edit]

Hermann Hesse It is not our purpose to become each other; it is to recognize each other, to learn to see the other and honor him for what he is: each the other's opposite and complement. Quotes[edit] Man's life seems to me like a long, weary night that would be intolerable if there were not occasionally flashes of light, the sudden brightness of which is so comforting and wonderful, that the moments of their appearance cancel out and justify the years of darkness. There is good and reason in us, in human beings, with whom fortune plays, and we can be stronger than nature and fate, if only for a few hours. And we can draw close to one another in times of need, understand and love one another, and live to comfort each other. And sometimes, when the black depths are silent, we can do even more. We cannot evade life's course, but we can school ourselves to be superior to fortune and also to look unflinchingly upon the most painful things. Peter Camenzind (1904)[edit] In the beginning was the myth.

Utilitarianism or consequentialism analyses potential outcomes to balance risks against potential benefits that research may offer. In stressing the outcomes and calculating cost-benefits, utilitarianism can sometimes be unprincipled. It may allow 'the ends to justify the means' too much, or it may tolerate harm to a minority if this is likely to benefit the majority. by raviii Jul 15

Related: