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(The Plasma Universe Wikipedia-like Encyclopedia)

(The Plasma Universe Wikipedia-like Encyclopedia)
Related:  Astrophysics / astronomyInteresting - alternative - science views

The Skyhound's Guide to Deep Sky Objects What is a deep sky object? Generally speaking it's any object in the sky that isn't a star or in our solar system. Most deep sky objects are faint, diffuse and require a telescope to see. Open Star ClustersGlobular Star ClustersDiffuse NebulaeDark NebulaePlanetary NebulaeSupernova RemnantsGalaxiesGalaxy GroupsQuasarsGravitational Lenses Open Star Clusters These are loose groupings of many stars. Like many deep sky objects, some open clusters look better in small telescopes than they do in large ones. Why are stars in clusters? Globular Clusters These star clusters are much larger groupings of stars that are drawn together into a much more concentrated, spherical shape than the open clusters. Stick to the brighter globulars for the most stunning views. Globular star clusters are composed of old stars. Diffuse Nebulae Diffuse Nebulae (pronounced nebulee) are clouds of glowing gas and dust. Dark Nebulae These are clouds of gas and dust that hide the stars behind them. Planetary Nebulae Galaxies

The 5th state of matter Summary: beautiful filament-systems are often shown by the astonishing development of the modern astronomy. Most of these filaments have an exact circular cross section. Filaments have the same interesting characteristics from a diameter of 0.01 mm to that of many 1000 of light-years. Filaments are incorrectly seen to be of plasma, however, particles move in only one direction in them, often against gravity. In this non-thermal (fifth-) state of matter, particles have up to 1016 -times higher energy than those in the hottest stellar plasma. Key words: Acceleration of particles, Bose-Einstein condensate, corona, corona problem, cosmic rays, fifth state of matter, filament, flux tube, forbidden lines, heat-motion, hypernova, jet, lightning, magnetic tube, non-thermal-phenomena, pinch-effect, plasma, solar dynamo, state of matter, supernova, temperature-scale. Ice is transformed to water at 0°C when the energy of its molecules (particles) increases. Fig. 1 The temperature scale.

The Electric Universe | A sound cosmology for the 21st century Science’s Looming ‘Tipping Point’ It is essential in these exuberant times to pay critical attention to both the observational constraints and to the basic mathematical laws, with a clear sense of what is solid theory and what is only unsupported speculation. This seeming platitude is offered here without jest, because at the present time there are ‘theories’ – scenarios sometimes quite detailed – seriously and often passionately held, for almost every exotic astronomical object that is not resolved in the telescope. In contrast, the one star that can be properly resolved – the pedestrian Sun – exhibits a variety of phenomena that defy contemporary theoretical understanding.— Eugene N. Parker A ‘tipping point’ in science is supposed to happen when the weight of evidence against a theory tips the balance of opinion against it. But we are dazzled in this space age by computer-generated ‘virtual reality’ and the sheer technological brilliance of applied science. Dysfunctional Science Dysfunctional Education Research Funding

A galaxy choked with dust One of the things I love about nearby galaxies is the incredible amount of detail we can get when we aim our best telescopes at them. For proof, I offer this amazingly intricate Hubble portrait of Centaurus A: Isn’t that breathtaking? [Click to galactinate and see it in magnificent detail.] Cen A (as those of us in the know call it) is pretty close by as galaxies go, a mere 11 million light years distant. Cen A is a bit of a mess. Obviously, Cen A hasn’t been keeping up with the neighborhood association rulebook. In its defense, Cen A apparently suffered a recent collision with another galaxy, absorbing the intruder’s stars, gas, and dust. Another cool thing about this image is the number of sub-images that went into it. All together, these images combine to create an amazing and impressive portrait of a weird and interesting galaxy, telling us a lot about its recent history… but also creating a beautiful piece of art. Related posts:

What is apparent magnitude? The apparent magnitude of the Sun is listed as -26.74. I want to know what is the formula used to compute this? How is this figure of -26.74 arrived at? Can this formula be employed for calculating the apparent magnitudes of stars of different spectral types too? The idea of "apparent magnitude" goes all the way back to the Greek astronomer Hipparchus. Basically, he looked at the stars in the sky and classified them by how bright they appear -- the brightest stars were "magnitude 1", the next brightest were "magnitude 2", etc., down to "magnitude 6", which were the faintest stars he could see. This scale seems nice and simple, but it turns out that it doesn't correspond very well to how bright the stars actually are. In the modern day, we've tweaked Hipparchus's definitions a bit to make them more precise and more convenient. The end result of the above mess is that we get the following formulas relating the brightness and magnitudes of any two stars: F2 / F1 = 100(m1 - m2) / 5

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