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Sumerian/Grammar In the lessons below, you'll be introduced to aspects of Sumerian grammar in (hopefully) bite sized chunks. If any of the lessons are confusing, don't hesitate to edit them for style, or use the discussion boards for suggestions! That's the spirit of the wiki, after all. Lesson One - The Plural Marker -- This lesson introduces us to some simple nouns and how to mark them as plural. Lesson Two - Possessives -- Here we learn how suffixed particles can modify the meaning of a noun, like "house", to be possessive, like "my house". Lesson Three - The Genitive -- The basics of the Sumerian case system for nouns is outlined here. Lesson Four - The Copula -- Before introducing verbs in general, the copula is introduced, along with simple predicative sentences. Lesson Five - The Verb Chain -- The Sumerian verb is discussed in simple situations. Lesson Six - A Sumerian Sentence -- Putting it all together, we translate a complete Sumerian sentence. Lesson Seven - Ergativity in Sumerian Lesson Nine - Cuneiform

DIOSCURI : Greek Gods of Horsemanship, Protectors of Sailors | Mythology, Dioskouroi, w/ pictures THE DIOSKOUROI (or Dioscuri) were twin star-crowned gods whose appearance (in the form of St Elmo's fire) on the rigging of a ships was believed to portent escape from a storm. They were also gods of horsemanship and protectors of guests and travellers. The twins were born as mortal princes, sons of the Spartan queen Leda, one being fathered by Zeus the other by her husband Tyndareus. The Dioskouroi also received a place amongst the stars as the Cosntellation Gemini (the Twins). The Dioskouroi were depicted as beardless youths, horsemen wearing wide-brimmed traveller's hats. Hesiod, Catalogues of Women Fragment 66 (from Scholiast on Pindar Nem. x. 150) (trans. Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 14 (trans. Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 77 : "Jupiter [Zeus], changed into a swan, had intercourse with Leda near the river Eurotas, and from that embrace she bore Pollux [Polydeukes] and Helen; to Tyndareus she bore Castor and Clytemnestra." Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 155 : "Sons of Jove [Zeus] . . .

DESCENT OF THE GODDESS ISHTAR INTO THE LOWER WORLD Return to Ancient Near East index Return to Main Index DESCENT OF THE GODDESS ISHTAR INTO THE LOWER WORLD [From The Civilization of Babylonia and Assyria, M. Jastrow, 1915] To the land of no return, the land of darkness, Ishtar, the daughter of Sin directed her thought, Directed her thought, Ishtar, the daughter of Sin, To the house of shadows, the dwelling, of Irkalla, To the house without exit for him who enters therein, To the road, whence there is no turning, To the house without light for him who enters therein, The place where dust is their nourishment, clay their food.' They have no light, in darkness they dwell. "Gatekeeper, ho, open thy gate! Let the palace of the land of no return rejoice at thy presence! He bade her enter the first gate, which he opened wide, and took the large crown off her head: "Why, O gatekeeper, dost thou remove the large crown off my head?" [The second half of the poem, the reverse of the tablet, continues is follows:]

E Pluribus Unum - History of Motto Carried by Eagle on Great Seal Origin and Meaning of the Motto Carried in the Beak of the Bald Eagle on the Great Seal E pluribus unum is the motto suggested by the committee Congress appointed on July 4, 1776 to design "a seal for the United States of America." The below sketch of their design accompanied a detailed description of their idea for the new nation's official emblem. A motto's purpose is to express the theme of a seal's imagery – especially that of the shield. The center section of this shield has six symbols for "the Countries from which these States have been peopled": the rose (England), thistle (Scotland), harp (Ireland), fleur-de-lis (France), lion (Holland), and an imperial eagle (Germany). Linked together around the shield are 13 smaller shields, each with the initials for one of the "thirteen independent States of America." On August 20, 1776, this first committee submitted their Great Seal design to Congress (including Benjamin Franklin's idea for the reverse side).

Sources of Early Akkadian Literature Sanscrit - Главное The Official Graham Hancock Website: Forum In the canonical gospels, as Jesus nears the moment of his arrest, he continually prays to God that “this cup may pass away from me” – that he might be spared the cross. Thomas, on the other hand, declared in The Gospel of John his willingness to die with Lazarus. Might he not be even more excited about the idea of dying in the place of the Messiah – in fact fulfilling one of the main roles of the Messiah himself? Could this explain Jesus’ declaration in The Gospel of Thomas, stating that Thomas had “become intoxicated with the bubbling spring which I have measured out”? If Thomas had been enlisted to die in his place willingly, he would have been forbidden to tell the other disciples. Perhaps this is what is hinted at in The Gospel of Thomas where it says: “And He took him and withdrew and told him three things. Is it possible that Judas Thomas, the messiah’s twin, is the same as Judas Iscariot, the man who supposedly died in his place? But is this just a cover story?

Sumerian Mythology FAQ by Christopher Siren, 1992, 1994, 2000 cbsiren at alum dot mit dot edu This FAQ used to be posted on the third of every month to alt.mythology. An older text copy of this FAQ is available via anonymous ftp pending *.answers approval at: rtfm.mit.edu at /pub/usenet/news.answers/mythology/sumer-faq last changes: July 27, 2000: complete revision including incorporating Kramer's Sumerian Mythology and Black & Green's God's Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia. Adapa (Dan Sullivan) has constructed a more complete Sumerian-English dictionary at: (Restored! I have constructed a rudimentary Sumerian-English, English Sumerian glossary using Kramer's The Sumerians and Jacobsen's Treasures of Darkness, although parties interested in the Sumerian language may be better served at the prior two pages. note: This FAQ is partly based on an anthropology paper which I wrote in 1992, using some of the sources detailed below. Contents: I. History Culture

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