Guidelines on Reading Philosophy It will be difficult for you to make sense of some of the articles we'll be reading. This is partly because they discuss abstract ideas that you're not accustomed to thinking about. They may also use technical vocabulary which is new to you. Sometimes it won't be obvious what the overall argument of the paper is supposed to be. The prose may be complicated, and you may need to pick the article apart sentence by sentence. Contents Skim the Article to Find its Conclusion and Get a Sense of its Structure A good way to begin when you're trying to read a difficult article is to first skim the article to identify what the author's main conclusion is. When you're skimming the article, try also to get a general sense of what's going on in each part of the discussion. The articles we read won't always have a straightforward structure. This is the conclusion I want you to accept. The conclusion I want you to accept is A. Articles can be complex in other ways, too. and so on.
Philosophy at St Andrews: Essay and exam advice The advice below is taken from the Philosophy Handbook for Undergraduates 2015/16. You should also read Jim Pryor's essay writing advice for Harvard and Princeton students (follow this and you will not go far wrong). Another useful site is the Writing Tutor for Introductory Philosophy Courses. which illustrates how to revise a short philosophy paper through several drafts. Notice how much the paper improves with each revision. Importantly, also see the University’s Good Academic Practice Policy. What Sort of Thing is Expected? Writing assessed essays offers you the opportunity to show your comprehension of some of the material covered in the module, and to demonstrate your own philosophical skills. Preparation Read the material suggested by your lecturers and tutors, as well as your lecture notes on the topic, if any. Writing Make sure that you address the question set. Structure You must have a plan. Content Argument is of prime importance.
Writing A Philosophy Paper - Department of Philosophy Good writing is the product of proper training, much practice, and hard work. The following remarks, though they will not guarantee a top quality paper, should help you determine where best to direct your efforts. I offer first some general comments on philosophical writing, and then some specific "do"s and "don't"s. One of the first points to be clear about is that a philosophical essay is quite different from an essay in most other subjects. Above all, it means that there must be a specific point that you are trying to establish - something that you are trying to convince the reader to accept - together with grounds or justification for its acceptance. Before you start to write your paper, you should be able to state exactly what it is that you are trying to show. The next task is to determine how to go about convincing the reader that your thesis is correct. Second, the ones that will stand out will be the very best ones and the very worst ones. Lengthy introductions.
Free Course: A Survey of Shakespeare's Plays This is a course on Shakespeare's career, given at Brandeis University in the spring of 2010, by William Flesch. It covers several representative plays from all four genres: comedy, tragedy, history, and romance. We consider both the similarities and differences among those genres, and how his more and more radical experimentations in genre reflect his developing thought, about theater, about time, about life, over the course of his career. In terms of texts, any complete Shakespeare will suffice, including this free version online from MIT. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19: The Winter's Tale, part 1: Things Dying: Audio 20. Support Open Culture We're hoping to rely on our loyal readers rather than erratic ads.
How to Write a Philosophy Paper Professor Amy Kind Students often find philosophy papers difficult to write since the expectations are very different from those in other disciplines, even from those of other disciplines in the humanities. What follows is some general advice about how to go about writing short (4 - 5 page) philosophy papers on pre-assigned topics. Before starting to write Make sure that you have read all of the relevant texts very carefully. Also make sure that you have spent some time thinking about the question itself. How to conceive of and write your paper Answer the question, the whole question, and nothing but the question. Philosophy papers usually involve both exposition and evaluation. As you write, think about your intended audience. When you use an unfamiliar or “technical” term (i.e. a term that we have given some specific meaning in this class) be sure to define it. In general, a thesaurus is not the friend of a philosophy student. As a rule, you should not use quotes. Once you have a draft
How to Capitalize and Format Reference Titles in APA Style by Chelsea Lee APA Style has special formatting rules for the titles of the sources you use in your paper, such as the titles of books, articles, book chapters, reports, and webpages. The different formats that might be applied are capitalization (see Publication Manual, section 4.15), italics (see section 4.21), and quotation marks (see section 4.07), and they are used in different combinations for different kinds of sources in different contexts. The formatting of the titles of sources you use in your paper depends on two factors: (a) the independence of the source (stands alone vs. part of a greater whole) and (b) the location of the title (in the text of the paper vs. in the reference list entry). More on Italics Versus Nonitalics As you can see in the table above, the titles of works that stand alone (such as a book or a report) are italicized in both the text and the reference list. More on Capitalization: Title Case Versus Sentence Case Text Examples Reference List Entry Examples
Plagiarism Checker - the most accurate and absolutely FREE! Try now! An Outline of A Philosophy Paper An Outline of A Philosophy Paper Although philosophy papers can appear very complex, they all follow a basic structure which can be modified to suit your needs. Although it is written, a philosophy paper can be seen as a combination of a lecture and a conversation; your goals should be to combine the two. First, like a lecture, you must always make sure that your reader understands what you are saying. The burden of understanding is on the author not the reader. In other words, it is not simply up to the reader to struggle to understand the text -- although he or she must do that. Like a conversation, a philosophy paper requires making room for other opinions and for responding to that opinion. Some Basic Paper-Writing Tips: - When writing, don't think of the professor as the audience. - Always define your terms. - Pay special attention to paragraphs. - Pay special attention to how paragraphs relate to each other. - Always edit on paper and read your versions aloud. I. A. II. III. IV.
Free Books : Download & Streaming : Ebook and Texts Archive : Internet Archive These books are books contributed by the community. Click here to contribute your book ! For more information and how-to please see help.archive.org/hc/en-us/articles/360002360111-Uploading-A-Basic-Guide Uploaders, please note: Archive.org supports metadata about items in just about any language so long as the characters are UTF8 encoded Find books by language: Afar Books Afrikaans Books Akan Books Albanian Books Arabic Books Armenian Books Aymara Books Azerbaijan Books Balochi Books Bambara... Topic: Texts The American Libraries collection includes material contributed from across the United States. Institutions range from the Library of Congress to many local public libraries. Additional collections of scanned books, articles, and other texts (usually organized by topic) are presented here. by Internet Archive Canada Welcome to the Canadian Libraries page. The John P. United States Patent and Trademark Office documents contributed by Think Computer Foundation. The John M.
Philosophy Basics | Josh May Table of Contents 1. Critical Thinking & Formal Logic Critical thinking involves recognizing and forming good arguments. When we think critically, we don’t always question everything (at least not in the strong sense of that phrase). But how do we know when we’re reasoning well? 2. But what do we mean by “arguments” in this context? Example of an Argument All humans are mortal. Example of a Non-Argument Get us some milk, please. More Examples of Non-Arguments “Why are you so angry?” 3. Good arguments are ones that offer good support for the conclusion. Good Form: the premises, if true, render the conclusion true or probable.Good Premises: every premise of the argument is true (or at least plausible or likely to be true). Philosophers call arguments that have these two features logically sound (“sound” for short). Good form has to do with the logical form of the argument, not whether the premises are in fact true or false. Example of a Bad Argument (good form but bad premises) If G.W. 4. 5. 6.
About a little thing called 750 Words Deductive and Inductive Arguments A deductive argument is an argument that is intended by the arguer to be (deductively) valid, that is, to provide a guarantee of the truth of the conclusion provided that the argument's premises (assumptions) are true. This point can be expressed also by saying that, in a deductive argument, the premises are intended to provide such strong support for the conclusion that, if the premises are true, then it would be impossible for the conclusion to be false. An argument in which the premises do succeed in guaranteeing the conclusion is called a (deductively) valid argument. Here is a valid deductive argument: It's sunny in Singapore. Here is a mildly strong inductive argument: Every time I've walked by that dog, he hasn't tried to bite me. An inductive argument is an argument that is intended by the arguer merely to establish or increase the probability of its conclusion. John is ill. That argument is valid due to its logical structure. If P then Q So, Q All odd numbers are integers.
CALLIMACHUS, HYMNS 1 - 3 CALLIMACHUS OF CYRENE was a Greek poet and scholar of the Library of Alexandria who flourished in the C3rd BC. He was the author of a large number of works, of which only 6 hymns and 63 epigrams still survive in their entirety. This volume is still in print and available new from Amazon.com (click on image right for details). In addition to the translation of Callimachus' Hymns and Epigrams the book contains Lycophron's riddling poem the Alexandra, Aratus' description of the stars, source Greek texts and Mair's introduction, index and footnotes. Some more recent translations of Callimachus and commentaries on his work appear in the booklist (right).  At libations to Zeus what else should rather be sung than the god himself, mighty for ever, king for evermore, router of the Pelagonians, dealer of justice to the sons of Heaven?  How shall we sing of him – as lord of Dicte1 or of Lycaeum?  In Parrhasia6 it was that Rheia bare thee, where was a hill sheltered with thickest brush. 1.