SOCIETE FRANCAISE POUR L'ETUDE DES TOXINES/ANSES - 2007 - Emergence de nouvelles toxicités d'origine marine; vers une évolution Modérateurs : Bernard POULAIN et Daniel GILLET Clostridium difficile toxins: diverse cellular effects based on simple glucosylation Ingo JUST (Hannover Medical School) La toxine létale de C. sordellii : cibles et mécanismes d'action, in vivo et in vitro Lethal toxin from C. sordellii : its targets and mechanisms of action in vivo and in vitro. Blandine GENY (Institut Pasteur, Paris) Clostridium difficile : Emergence d'un pathogène Philippe BOUVET (Institut Pasteur, Paris) Antibiotic-induced expression of a cryptic cpb2 gene in beta2-toxigenic Clostridium perfringens involved in equine typholcolitis. Joachim FREY (Université de Berne) Toxines binaires de Clostridium : facteurs de virulence ? Michel POPOFF (Institut Pasteur, Paris) "Nouvelles toxines": nouvelle appréhension du risque toxinique induit par des toxines bactériennes Bernard POULAIN (CNRS, Strasbourg) Modérateurs : Michel R. Cell surface receptor recognition by botulinum neurotoxins Thomas BINZ (Université de Hanovre) S.
SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 24/09/15 Anthropogenic debris in seafood: Plastic debris and fibers from textiles in fish and bivalves sold for human consumption Anthropogenic Debris in Fish Sampled from Indonesia From the Paotere Fish Market in Indonesia, we purchased 76 whole fish across 11 different species. The species included 5 tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), 9 skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis), 9 Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta), 17 shortfin scad (Decapterus macrosoma), 10 silver-stripe round herring (Spratelloides gracilis), 7 from the family Carangidae (could not be identified to genera), 7 rabbitfish (2 Siganus argenteus, 3 Siganus fuscescens, 2 Siganus canaliculatus), 5 humpback red snapper (Lutjanus gibbus) and 7 oxeye scad (Selar boops). Overall, 21 out of 76 (28%) fish sampled had anthropogenic debris in their GI tract (Fig. 2). The graph on the left (a) shows the proportion of individual fish sampled in each location that contained anthropogenic debris (black) in their GI tract. The middle bar (white) shows the proportion with plastic debris and the right bar (diagonal lines) shows the proportion with fibers.
FUSION_NET 25/09/15 Study finds eating shellfish could mean eating ocean debris Our manmade pollution is being eaten by fish, which are being eaten by us, creating a sad, karmic circle of garbage. In a new study published in Scientific Reports, U.C. Davis researchers examined 76 fish slated for human consumption in Indonesia and 64 in California. They found that in both groups, roughly one quarter had anthropogenic debris in their guts. Anthropogenic—or manmade—ocean pollution ranges from plastic bags to bottles to cans to general junk, but in this case the researchers found plastic in the Indonesian population and plastic and textile fibers in the American one. The researchers guess that the differences arise from how each country manages waste. Indonesia has little in the way of landfills, waste collection or recycling, and large amounts of plastic are tossed onto the beaches and into the ocean. Lead author Chelsea Rochman added that “to mitigate the issue in each location, it helps to think about local sources and differences in waste management strategies.”
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 09/03/16 A Simple Model to Rank Shellfish Farming Areas Based on the Risk of Disease Introduction and Spread Summary The European Union Council Directive 2006/88/EC requires that risk-based surveillance (RBS) for listed aquatic animal diseases is applied to all aquaculture production businesses. The principle behind this is the efficient use of resources directed towards high-risk farm categories, animal types and geographic areas. To achieve this requirement, fish and shellfish farms must be ranked according to their risk of disease introduction and spread. We present a method to risk rank shellfish farming areas based on the risk of disease introduction and spread and demonstrate how the approach was applied in 45 shellfish farming areas in England and Wales. Ten parameters were used to inform the risk model, which were grouped into four risk themes based on related pathways for transmission of pathogens: (i) live animal movement, (ii) transmission via water, (iii) short distance mechanical spread (birds) and (iv) long distance mechanical spread (vessels). Introduction Figure 1. Discussion
SCIENCEMAG 17/10/16 Researchers use ‘robomussels’ to monitor climate change Tiny robots have been helping researchers study how climate change affects biodiversity. Developed by Northeastern University scientist Brian Helmuth, the "robomussels" have the shape, size, and color of actual mussels, with miniature built-in sensors that track temperatures inside the mussel beds. Advertisement For the past 18 years, every 10 to 15 minutes, Helmuth and a global research team of 48 scientists have used robomussels to track internal body temperature, which is determined by the temperature of the surrounding air or water, and the amount of solar radiation the devices absorb. Housed at Northeastern's Marine Science Center in Nahant, Massachusetts, this largest-ever database is not only a remarkable way to track the effects of climate change, the findings can also reveal emerging hotspots so policymakers and scientists can step in and relieve stressors such as erosion and water acidification before it's too late. Media Contact
FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY 03/05/17 New Insights into Pathogenic Vibrios Affecting Bivalves in Hatcheries: Present and Future Prospects Introduction According to latest SOFIA report (FAO, 2016), the worldwide food production must be increased considerably since global population will reach 9.7 billion people in 2050. In this context, marine products are an essential part of the human diet as one of the main resources of animal protein and its worldwide consumption per capita has been duplicated since 1960. Nowadays, more than half of these products come from aquaculture due to the overexploitation of the traditional fisheries and this proportion will exceed 65% in 2030. Depletion and/or overexploitation of natural beds promoted that bivalve hatcheries gained importance in the shellfish aquaculture as the only viable solution to support the bivalve husbandry (Ojea et al., 2008; da Costa et al., 2013). FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. Clearly, microbiological aspects play an important role in the successful bivalve culture. Overview of the Pathogenic Vibrios for Bivalve Larvae and Spat: Species and Virulence Factors FIGURE 3.