The Law — Not Ever Scotland has one of the narrowest definitions of rape in the world. Currently, rape is defined as penetration of a woman’s vagina by a man’s penis (to however small a degree) without the woman’s consent. The Sexual Offences (Scotland) Act 2009, which will come into force in October 2010, will broaden this definition to include penile penetration of someone’s vagina, anus or mouth without their consent. This means that for the first time male rape will be included in the Scottish definition of rape. Penetration by an object will be a separate offence, equivalent in seriousness to rape. The new Act will also define for the first time what consent actually means – the Act defines consent as ‘free agreement’. The Act makes it clear that consent to one form of sexual activity (i.e. kissing or touching) does not mean that consent has been given to any other sexual act. For more information read the Sexual Offences (Scotland) Act
New research: synthetic nitrogen destroys soil carbon, undermines soil health Just precisely what does all of that nitrogen ferilizer do to the soil?“Fertilizer is good for the father and bad for the sons.”–Dutch saying For all of its ecological baggage, synthetic nitrogen does one good deed for the environment: it helps build carbon in soil. If that were true, it would count as a major environmental benefit of synthetic N use. The case for synthetic N as a climate stabilizer goes like this. Well, that logic has come under fierce challenge from a team of University of Illinois researchers led by professors Richard Mulvaney, Saeed Khan, and Tim Ellsworth. And their analysis gets more alarming. The loss of organic matter has other ill effects, the researchers say. In short, “the soil is bleeding,” Mulvaney told me in an interview. If the Illinois team is correct, synthetic nitrogen’s effect on carbon sequestration swings from being an important ecological advantage to perhaps its gravest liability. In other words, synthetic nitrogen degrades soil. So who’s right?
The BASICS of MUSHROOM IDENTIFICATION - AmericanMushrooms.com The BASICS of MUSHROOM IDENTIFICATION IMPORTANT NOTEThis resource is posted without warranty as to absolute taxonomic determination. In other words, it is possible that I have mislabelled a mushroom here!DO NOT use these photos as a tool for safe identification of edible wild mushrooms—use resources that are designed for that purpose:Edible Wild Mushrooms of North AmericaAmerica's Best, Safest Edible Wild Mushrooms Take a good look at the mushrooms in the photo above, noting that each of the caps is about four inches wide and that they were found growing on the forest floor amidst Eastern hemlock, white oak, American beech, and yellow birch trees. Here's another… The larger cap is a little more than three inches wide. Identifying mushrooms is, above all else, an exercise in paying attention to detail. Here are a bunch of "mushroom features" to give you a sense of the kind of details to look for. Amanita farinosa also has warts, but they're gray and powdery or "mealy."
Styrofoam-Eating Mealworms Could Happily Dispose of Plastic Waste One man's trash is another man's — or worm's — treasure. Research from Stanford shows that darkling beetle larvae, commonly called mealworms, will happily eat a diet of polystyrene (better known by its trade name, styrofoam), providing a possible method for disposing of this notoriously durable and pervasive plastic waste. Related: Millions of Tons! Scientists Tally Up Plastic Pollution in Oceans Wei-Min Wu and his colleagues at the university's Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering raised a hundred mealworms from birth strictly on styrofoam, which the creatures can digest thanks to a type of bacteria in their gut. Amazingly, the worms seem to suffer no ill effects from eating plastic all day — they were as healthy as a control group that ate bran. Understanding how bacteria process a plastic thought to be practically indestructible, let alone edible, may lead to a way of disposing safely of the millions of tons of non-recyclable plastic thrown away every year.
Agronomy Plant breeding An agronomist field sampling a trial plot of flax. Biotechnology An agronomist mapping a plant genome Agronomists use biotechnology to extend and expedite the development of desired characteristic. Biotechnology is often a lab activity requiring field testing of the new crop varieties that are developed. In addition to increasing crop yields agronomic biotechnology is increasingly being applied for novel uses other than food. Soil science Agronomists study sustainable ways to make soils more productive and profitable. Soil conservation In addition, agronomists develop methods to preserve the soil and to decrease the effects of erosion by wind and water. Agroecology Theoretical modeling Agronomy schools Agronomy programs are offered at colleges, universities, and specialized agricultural schools. See also References Bibliography Wendy B. External links
Cross-bred wheat lifts yields A SALT-RESISTANT wheat variety developed by an Australian team through old-fashioned cross-breeding rather than genetic modification is increasing crop yields by up to 25 per cent in salinity-prone areas, and could help counter food security concerns. Researchers from Adelaide University's Waite Institute, the CSIRO and the NSW government first isolated the gene in an ancient relative of durum wheat -- used to make couscous and pasta flour -- 15 years ago. The breakthrough was published in the international journal Nature Biotechnology overnight. Senior author Matthew Gilliham said researchers had spent more than a decade using traditional cross-breeding techniques to blend the 10,000-year-old durum with its modern cousin to increase its salt resistance without genetic modification. "Through domestication, there's a lot of genetic diversity that has been lost," Dr Gilliham said. The salt-tolerant gene prevented sodium build-up in leaves, allowing it to increase growth and yields.
22 Natural Sore Throat Remedies to Help Soothe the Pain A sore throat can be a royal pain in the uh…throat. Like blinking, we never notice how much we swallow until we start paying attention to it, and when it hurts like nobody’s business, it’s kind of difficult not to pay attention. But before you go getting down about how long you’re going to have to suffer with it, consider taking some action-relief may be close than you think. Note: Do not give honey on its own or otherwise to children under the age of 1 year. 1. When your Grandmother told you to gargle with salt water, she knew what she was talking about. When our throats hurt, regardless of what causes it, it’s because the cells in the mucous membranes have become swollen and inflamed. You will need… -1 cup of warm water (8 oz.) -½ teaspoon of table salt Directions Heat water until it’s warm, but not hot. Any more than that and you risk drying out healthy soft tissue and making things worse. 2. Directions If you’re using it, pour the alcohol into a large mug. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 1.
NYIT Students Turn Plastic Bottles Into Disaster Relief Last week’s devastating typhoon in the Philippines has reminded designers of the ongoing challenge of creating safe, temporary shelters when natural disasters hit. Crates of food and water are some of the first types of aid delivered to these ravaged areas; so what if these resources could be designed to also provide shelter and minimize waste? The New York Institute of Technology’s School of Architecture asked just that question and came up with a solution: SodaBIB, a new type of shipping pallet that would allow commonly used plastic bottles to be used for shelter. The team just launched a Kickstarter campaign to fund a full-scale shelter using their patented water bottle roofing system: the roof is constructed with discarded water bottles that are crushed, overlapped, and offset like Spanish tiles. Recently, NYIT has seen enough value in the idea to award it a modest construction budget as an institutional grant.
Death of Jairo Mora Sandoval Jairo Mora Sandoval (March 22, 1987 – May 31, 2013) was a Costa Rican environmentalist who was murdered while attempting to protect leatherback turtle nests. Just before midnight on May 30, 2013, Mora and four female volunteers were abducted by a group of masked men. The women eventually escaped and informed the police. Mora's bound and beaten body was found on the beach the next morning. Sea turtles are protected by law in Costa Rica, but poaching remains common. In the wake of Mora's death, the organization he worked with cancelled beach patrol efforts in Costa Rica. Background Costa Rica has a good reputation for wildlife conservation in general, and sea turtles have been protected by national legislation in Costa Rica since 1966. The country prides itself on its natural beauty and the nation's economy depends heavily on ecotourism. Life and career of Jairo Mora On May 5, La Nación accompanied Mora and Lizano on a typical night's work. Death