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Pavlov’s Dogs

Pavlov’s Dogs
by Saul McLeod published 2007, updated 2013 Like many great scientific advances, Pavlovian conditioning (aka classical conditioning) was discovered accidentally. During the 1890s Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov was looking at salivation in dogs in response to being fed, when he noticed that his dogs would begin to salivate whenever he entered the room, even when he was not bringing them food. Pavlovian Conditioning Pavlov (1902) started from the idea that there are some things that a dog does not need to learn. Unconditioned Stimulus (Food) > Unconditioned Response (Salivate) Pavlov showed the existence of the unconditioned response by presenting a dog with a bowl of food and the measuring its salivary secretions (see image below). However, when Pavlov discovered that any object or event which the dogs learnt to associate with food (such as the lab assistant) would trigger the same response, he realized that he had made an important scientific discovery. Summary References Pavlov, I. Related:  vbond6885

Memory Gym Series | :: BrainTrain - Changing the Way People Think :: Insurance coverage varies according to insurance company and state, but all major carriers now cover Cognitive Rehabilitation. It is billed in 15 minute units with fees paid at $35 to $55 per unit, depending on the region of the country. A treatment plan is required and progress must be documented. In addition, the patient needs to be qualified to show that he or she can possibly benefit from this form of treatment. Currently, neurological disorders, strokes, cancer treatment (medicines used to treat cancer are toxic to the brain) and traumatic brain injuries are covered. Code: 97532: Development of cognitive skills to improve attention, memory, problem solving (includes compensatory training), direct patient contact by the provider, each 15 minutes. Code: 97533: Sensory integrative techniques to enhance sensory processing and promote adaptive responses to environment demands, direct patient contact by the provider, each 15 minutes.

10 Most Brilliant Social Experiments Ten of the most influential social psychology experiments. “I have been primarily interested in how and why ordinary people do unusual things, things that seem alien to their natures.Why do good people sometimes act evil?Why do smart people sometimes do dumb or irrational things?” –Philip Zimbardo Like eminent social psychologist Professor Philip Zimbardo (author of The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil), I’m also obsessed with why we do dumb or irrational things. The answer quite often is because of other people – something social psychologists have comprehensively shown. Over the past few months I’ve been describing 10 of the most influential social psychology experiments. Each one tells a unique, insightful story relevant to all our lives, every day. 1. The ‘halo effect’ is a classic social psychology experiment. » Read on about the halo effect -» 2. » Read on about cognitive dissonance -» 3. » Read on about Sherif’s Robbers Cave experiment -» 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Body language, not facial expressions, broadcasts what's happening to us If you think that you can judge by examining someone's facial expressions if he has just hit the jackpot in the lottery or lost everything in the stock market -- think again. Researchers at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and at New York University and Princeton University have discovered that -- despite what leading theoretical models and conventional wisdom might indicate -- it just doesn't work that way. Rather, they found that body language provides a better cue in trying to judge whether an observed subject has undergone strong positive or negative experiences. In a study published this week in the journal Science, the researchers present data showing that viewers in test groups were baffled when shown photographs of people who were undergoing real-life, highly intense positive and negative experiences. The study was led by Dr. In an additional study, Aviezer and his collaborators asked viewers to examine a more broad range of real-life intense faces.

10 Famous Psychological Experiments That Could Never Happen Today Here are the stories behind the nicknames of the NFL’s 32 teams—and what they were almost called. All photos via Getty Images. Getty Images The franchise began play in Chicago in 1898 before moving to St. Shortly after insurance executive Rankin Smith brought professional football to Atlanta, a local radio station sponsored a contest to name the team. Ravens, a reference to Edgar Allan Poe’s famous poem, beat out Americans and Marauders in a contest conducted by the Baltimore Sun. Of the more than 33,000 voters in the Sun’s phone-in poll, more than 21,000 picked Ravens. The Bills nickname was suggested as part of a fan contest in 1947 to rename Buffalo’s All-America Football Conference team, which was originally known as the Bisons. Panthers team president Mark Richardson, the son of team owner Jerry Richardson, chose the Panthers nickname because "it's a name our family thought signifies what we thought a team should be—powerful, sleek and strong." Tom Pennington/Getty Images

4 secrets to reading body language like an expert: How important is body language? 55% of what you convey when you speak comes from body language. In fact, when you’re speaking about something emotional only about 7% of what the other person hears has to do with the words you use. More often than not you can tell what a politician thinks about an issue just by watching their hands. In five minutes you can often evaluate people with approximately 70% accuracy… but obviously we’re wrong often, and that 30% can be very costly. What can the research teach us about better reading people’s body language? What You’re Doing Wrong In The Silent Language of Leaders: How Body Language Can Help–or Hurt–How You Lead the author points out a number of common errors people make. Here’s how I interpreted the findings: Ignoring context: Crossed arms don’t mean as much if the room is cold or the chair they’re sitting in doesn’t have armrests. What To Focus On What signals can and should you trust when trying to get a “read” on someone? Specifics To Look For Tags:

The Surprising Psychology of Smiling AntonioDiaz/Shutterstock Consider enigmatic smile of the Mona Lisa; the demure smile of the Late HRH Princess Diana and the enchanting smile of Julia Roberts. What can one learn from a smile? What have evolutionary, cross-cultural and social psychological research contributed to our understanding of the smile? Is it preposterous to suggest there is (or ever could be) a science of smiling? Smiles may be natural or faked. Surprisingly the smiling or laughing face is often not very different from the howling or tearful face. Genuine laughter increases breathing, while lowering blood pressure and heart rate. The “science of smiling” as such was initiated by Charles Darwin. Darwin also observed that smiling and laughter often occurred together and therefore had similar origins. However there maybe culture differences in rules of smiling: when etiquette dictates it is appropriate to smile or not. We know that, on average, women smile more than men. Smiling in humans can indicate dominance.

Project-Based Learning Research Review Editor's Note: This article was originally written by Vanessa Vega, with subsequent updates made by the Edutopia staff. Studies have proven that when implemented well, project-based learning (PBL) can increase retention of content and improve students' attitudes towards learning, among other benefits. Edutopia's PBL research review explores the vast body of research on the topic and helps make sense of the results. In this series of five articles, learn how researchers define project-based learning, review some of the possible learning outcomes, get our recommendations of evidence-based components for successful PBL, learn about best practices across disciplines, find tips for avoiding pitfalls when implementing PBL programs, and dig in to a comprehensive annotated bibliography with links to all the studies and reports cited in these pages. What is Project-Based Learning? Learning Outcomes Keys to Project-Based Learning Success

untitled Fixed vs. Growth: The Two Basic Mindsets That Shape Our Lives By Maria Popova “If you imagine less, less will be what you undoubtedly deserve,” Debbie Millman counseled in one of the best commencement speeches ever given, urging: “Do what you love, and don’t stop until you get what you love. Work as hard as you can, imagine immensities…” Far from Pollyanna platitude, this advice actually reflects what modern psychology knows about how belief systems about our own abilities and potential fuel our behavior and predict our success. Much of that understanding stems from the work of Stanford psychologist Carol Dweck, synthesized in her remarkably insightful Mindset: The New Psychology of Success (public library) — an inquiry into the power of our beliefs, both conscious and unconscious, and how changing even the simplest of them can have profound impact on nearly every aspect of our lives. One of the most basic beliefs we carry about ourselves, Dweck found in her research, has to do with how we view and inhabit what we consider to be our personality.

The Lost Art of Eye Contact We’ve stopped seeing each other. You and me. All of us. Our eyes may indeed be windows to our soul, but with our necks craned downward and our eyes focused on tiny handheld screens, who can tell? We hardly make an effort to look at the person we’re talking to anymore. When nearly every personal and business interaction uses a screen as an intermediary, it’s difficult to develop and maintain meaningful relationships with employees, customers and partners. Speak with Your Eyes We communicate so much with a simple look. Listen to Their Eyes Without looking directly into someone’s eyes, you’ll miss millions of visual clues as to what’s going on inside their head. Look for the “Tell” In poker, it’s called the “tell”: the habitual signal your opponent makes that betrays whether he or she is holding a full house or a hand full of nothing. Be Shifty-Eyed If you’re making a presentation to a group you need to look at everyone in the room. But Don’t Be Creepy

18 Ways to Improve Your Body Language There is no specific advice on how to use your body language. What you do might be interpreted in several ways, depending on the setting and who you are talking to. You’ll probably want to use your body language differently when talking to your boss compared to when you talk to a girl/guy you’re interested in. These are some common interpretations of body language and often more effective ways to communicate with your body. First, to change your body language you must be aware of your body language. You might want to practice in front of a mirror. Another tip is to close your eyes and visualize how you would stand and sit to feel confident, open and relaxed or whatever you want to communicate. You might also want observe friends, role models, movie stars or other people you think has good body language. Some of these tips might seem like you are faking something. In the beginning easy it’s to exaggerate your body language. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

Body Language Signals: Eye Directions, Pupils Warning! Reading body language is like listening to someone. Listed here are the possible meanings of many different body language signs. To avoid getting it wrong, please start with the short section “How Can You Read What People Think?” at the bottom of this page. The Eyes (Part II) - Squint during a conversation –> showing interest - Looking away –> possibly shy –> curious about the surroundings (some people naturally observe their environment more than others) –> showing interest in your other movements. Otherwise, it may be a sign that this person is attracted to you… Basically, looking at other parts of your body is part of the unconscious assessment people make about how suitable you are as a mate… Whether you like it or not, we all do this. How To Read Eye Directions Without going too deep into neuroscience, let’s look at how a person’s eye directions can tell you what they are actually thinking. You have probably heard that there are two main parts to the brain: How can you use this? Why?

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