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Government debt

Government debt
Government debt (also known as public debt, national debt and sovereign debt)[1][2] is the debt owed by a central government. (In federal states, "government debt" may also refer to the debt of a state or provincial, municipal or local government.) By contrast, the annual "government deficit" refers to the difference between government receipts and spending in a single year, that is, the increase of debt over a particular year. Government debt is one method of financing government operations, but it is not the only method. Governments can also create money to monetize their debts, thereby removing the need to pay interest. But this practice simply reduces government interest costs rather than truly canceling government debt,[3] and can result in hyperinflation if used unsparingly. As the government draws its income from much of the population, government debt is an indirect debt of the taxpayers. History[edit] The sealing of the Bank of England Charter (1694) By country[edit] Risk[edit] Related:  Economics誰說經濟一定要成長?Definitions/Concepts

Inflation In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in the general price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.[1] When the price level rises, each unit of currency buys fewer goods and services. Consequently, inflation reflects a reduction in the purchasing power per unit of money – a loss of real value in the medium of exchange and unit of account within the economy.[2][3] A chief measure of price inflation is the inflation rate, the annualized percentage change in a general price index (normally the consumer price index) over time.[4] The opposite of inflation is deflation. History[edit] Annual inflation rates in the United States from 1666 to 2004. Historically, infusions of gold or silver into an economy also led to inflation. The adoption of fiat currency by many countries, from the 18th century onwards, made much larger variations in the supply of money possible. Related definitions[edit] Measures[edit] Other common measures of inflation are: Effects[edit] where

Consumer debt In recent years, an alternative analysis might view consumer debt as a way to increase domestic production, on the grounds that if credit is easily available, the increased demand for consumer goods should cause an increase of overall domestic production. The permanent income hypothesis suggests that consumers take debt to smooth consumption throughout their lives, borrowing to finance expenditures (particularly housing and schooling) earlier in their lives and paying down debt during higher-earning periods. Both domestic and international economists have supported a recent upsurge in South Korean consumer debt, which has helped fuel economic expansion. The most common forms of consumer debt are credit card debt, payday loans, and other consumer finance, which are often at higher interest rates than long-term secured loans, such as mortgages. Long-term consumer debt is often considered fiscally suboptimal. See also[edit] References[edit] External links[edit]

Macroeconomics Circulation in macroeconomics. Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix makro- meaning "large" and economics) is a branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole, rather than individual markets. This includes national, regional, and global economies.[1][2] With microeconomics, macroeconomics is one of the two most general fields in economics. While macroeconomics is a broad field of study, there are two areas of research that are emblematic of the discipline: the attempt to understand the causes and consequences of short-run fluctuations in national income (the business cycle), and the attempt to understand the determinants of long-run economic growth (increases in national income). Basic macroeconomic concepts[edit] Output and income[edit] Unemployment[edit] Main article: Unemployment A chart using US data showing the relationship between economic growth and unemployment expressed by Okun's law. Inflation and deflation[edit]

Unemployment Unemployment occurs when people are without work and actively seeking work.[1] The unemployment rate is a measure of the prevalence of unemployment and it is calculated as a percentage by dividing the number of unemployed individuals by all individuals currently in the labor force. During periods of recession, an economy usually experiences a relatively high unemployment rate.[2] According to International Labour Organization report, more than 197 million people globally or 6% of the world's workforce were without a job in 2012.[3] There remains considerable theoretical debate regarding the causes, consequences and solutions for unemployment. Classical economics, New classical economics, and the Austrian School of economics argue that market mechanisms are reliable means of resolving unemployment. Definitions, types, and theories[edit] On the other hand, cyclical unemployment, structural unemployment, and classical unemployment are largely involuntary in nature. Full employment[edit]

External debt Map of countries by external debt as a percentage of GDP The chart depicts the share of US gross external debt by debtors. [1] External debt (or foreign debt) is that part of the total debt in a country that is owed to creditors outside the country. The debtors can be the government, corporations or citizens of that country. The debt includes money owed to private commercial banks, other governments, or international financial institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank. Definition[edit] PEP defines it as "Gross external debt, at any given time, is the outstanding amount of those actual current, and not contingent, liabilities that require payment(s) of principal and/or interest by the debtor at some point(s) in the future and that are owed to nonresidents by residents of an economy".[1] In this definition, IMF defines the key elements as follows: Outstanding and Actual Current Liabilities Principal and Interest Residence Current and Not Contingent (b) bilateral,

Exchange rate In finance, an exchange rate (also known as a foreign-exchange rate, forex rate, FX rate or Agio) between two currencies is the rate at which one currency will be exchanged for another. It is also regarded as the value of one country’s currency in terms of another currency.[1] For example, an interbank exchange rate of 119 Japanese yen (JPY, ¥) to the United States dollar (US$) means that ¥119 will be exchanged for each US$1 or that US$1 will be exchanged for each ¥119. In this case it is said that the price of a dollar in terms of yen is ¥119, or equivalently that the price of a yen in terms of dollars is $1/119. Exchange rates are determined in the foreign exchange market,[2] which is open to a wide range of different types of buyers and sellers where currency trading is continuous: 24 hours a day except weekends, i.e. trading from 20:15 GMT on Sunday until 22:00 GMT Friday. Retail exchange market[edit] Quotations[edit] Exchange rates display in Thailand Main article: Currency pair

Interest rate An interest rate is the rate at which interest is paid by borrowers (debtors) for the use of money that they borrow from lenders (creditors). Specifically, the interest rate is a percentage of principal paid a certain number of times per period for all periods during the total term of the loan or credit. Interest rates are normally expressed as a percentage of the principal for a period of one year, sometimes they are expressed for different periods like for a month or a day. Different interest rates exist parallelly for the same or comparable time periods, depending on the default probability of the borrower, the residual term, the payback currency, and many more determinants of a loan or credit. For example, a company borrows capital from a bank to buy new assets for its business, and in return the lender receives rights on the new assets as collateral and interest at a predetermined interest rate for deferring the use of funds and instead lending it to the borrower. is widely used.

GROSS DEBT DEFINITION GROSS DEBT, generally, is the sum total of an entities debt obligations. In corporate finance, it is usually comprised of debt financing, irrespective of its maturity, i.e. medium and long-term (various borrowings due in more than one year that have not yet been repaid) and short-term bank or financial borrowings (portion of long-term borrowings due in less than one year, discounted notes (same technique as discounting of bills of exchange), bank overdrafts, etc.). BUSINESS TRANSACTION see TRANSACTION. VISUAL-FIT METHOD is a cost estimation method where an analyst examines a cost by plotting points on a graph (called a scatter diagram) and places a line through the points to yield a cost function.

Currency A currency (from Middle English: curraunt, "in circulation", from Latin: currens, -entis) in the most specific use of the word refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.[1][2] A more general definition is that a currency is a system of money (monetary units) in common use, especially in a nation.[3] Under this definition, British pounds, U.S. dollars, and European euros are examples of currency. These various currencies are stores of value, and are traded between nations in foreign exchange markets, which determine the relative values of the different currencies.[4] Currencies in this sense are defined by governments, and each type has limited boundaries of acceptance. Other definitions of the term "currency" are discussed in their respective synonymous articles banknote, coin, and money. History[edit] Early currency[edit] Cowry shells being used as money by an Arab trader. Coinage[edit] Nonconvertible

Balance of trade The commercial balance or net exports (sometimes symbolized as NX), is the difference between the monetary value of exports and imports of output in an economy over a certain period, measured in the currency of that economy. It is the relationship between a nation's imports and exports.[1] A positive balance is known as a trade surplus if it consists of exporting more than is imported; a negative balance is referred to as a trade deficit or, informally, a trade gap. The balance of trade is sometimes divided into a goods and a services balance. Understand- Balance of Trade[edit] Trade, in general connotation, means the purchase and sales of commodities. Policies of early modern Europe are grouped under the heading mercantilism. Definition[edit] The balance of trade forms part of the current account, which includes other transactions such as income from the net international investment position as well as international aid. Factors that can affect the balance of trade include:

Credit default swap If the reference bond performs without default, the protection buyer pays quarterly payments to the seller until maturity If the reference bond defaults, the protection seller pays par value of the bond to the buyer, and the buyer transfers ownership of the bond to the seller In the event of default the buyer of the CDS receives compensation (usually the face value of the loan), and the seller of the CDS takes possession of the defaulted loan.[1] However, anyone can purchase a CDS, even buyers who do not hold the loan instrument and who have no direct insurable interest in the loan (these are called "naked" CDSs). If there are more CDS contracts outstanding than bonds in existence, a protocol exists to hold a credit event auction; the payment received is usually substantially less than the face value of the loan.[2] Credit default swaps have existed since the early 1990s, and increased in use after 2003. Description[edit] Differences from insurance[edit] The other differences include:

Economic policy Economic policy refers to the actions that governments take in the economic field. It covers the systems for setting levels of taxation, government budgets, the money supply and interest rates as well as the labor market, national ownership, and many other areas of government interventions into the economy. Most factors of economic policy can be divided into either fiscal policy, which deals with government actions regarding taxation and spending, or monetary policy, which deals with central banking actions regarding the money supply and interest rates. Such policies are often influenced by international institutions like the International Monetary Fund or World Bank as well as political beliefs and the consequent policies of parties. Types of economic policy[edit] Almost every aspect of government has an important economic component. Macroeconomic stabilization policy[edit] Fiscal policy, often tied to Keynesian economics, uses government spending and taxes to guide the economy. Notes

Gross national product Gross national product (GNP) is the market value of all the products and services produced in one year by labor and property supplied by the citizens of a country. Unlike Gross Domestic Product (GDP), which defines production based on the geographical location of production, GNP allocates production based on ownership. GNP does not distinguish between qualitative improvements in the state of the technical arts (e.g., increasing computer processing speeds), and quantitative increases in goods (e.g., number of computers produced), and considers both to be forms of "economic growth".[1] Basically, GNP is the total value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a particular year, plus income earned by its citizens (including income of those located abroad)(no need to minus income of non resident as income includes of only its citizen). Gross National Product (GNP) is often contrasted with Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Use[edit] GNP Growth[edit] See also[edit] Sources[edit]

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