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Direct democracy

Direct democracy
Direct democracy (also known as pure democracy)[1] is a form of democracy in which people decide (e.g. vote on, form consensus on, etc.) policy initiatives directly, as opposed to a representative democracy in which people vote for representatives who then decide policy initiatives.[2] Depending on the particular system in use, it might entail passing executive decisions, the use of sortition, making laws, directly electing or dismissing officials and conducting trials. Two leading forms of direct democracy are participatory democracy and deliberative democracy. Most countries that are representative democracies allow for three forms of political action that provide limited direct democracy: referendum (plebiscite), initiative, and recall[citation needed]. Referendums can include the ability to hold a binding vote on whether a given law should be rejected. History[edit] Modern-era citizen lawmaking began in the towns of Switzerland in the 13th century. Examples[edit] Ancient Athens[edit]

Libertarian Marxism Libertarian Marxism includes such currents as council communism, left communism, Socialisme ou Barbarie Lettrism/Situationism and operaismo/autonomism, and New Left.[8] Libertarian Marxism has often had a strong influence on both post-left and social anarchists. Notable theorists of libertarian Marxism have included Anton Pannekoek, Raya Dunayevskaya, CLR James, Antonio Negri, Cornelius Castoriadis, Maurice Brinton, Guy Debord, Daniel Guérin, Ernesto Screpanti, and Raoul Vaneigem. Overview[edit] However, "the most important ruptures are to be traced to the insurgency during and after the First World War. In the emerging Soviet state, there appeared left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks which were a series of rebellions and uprisings against the Bolsheviks led or supported by left wing groups including Socialist Revolutionaries,[12] Left Socialist Revolutionaries, Mensheviks, and anarchists.[13] Some were in support of the White Movement while some tried to be an independent force.

Democracy According to political scientist Larry Diamond, it consists of four key elements: The term originates from the Greek δημοκρατία (dēmokratía) "rule of the people",[4] which was found from δῆμος (dêmos) "people" and κράτος (krátos) "power" or "rule", in the 5th century BC to denote the political systems then existing in Greek city-states, notably Athens; the term is an antonym to ἀριστοκρατία (aristokratía) "rule of an elite". While theoretically these definitions are in opposition, in practice the distinction has been blurred historically.[5] The political system of Classical Athens, for example, granted democratic citizenship to an elite class of free men and excluded slaves and women from political participation. Democracy contrasts with forms of government where power is either held by an individual, as in an absolute monarchy, or where power is held by a small number of individuals, as in an oligarchy. Characteristics[edit] History[edit] Ancient origins[edit] Middle Ages[edit] Robert A.

Free love Free love is a social movement that rejects marriage, which is seen as a form of social and financial bondage. The Free Love movement's initial goal was to separate the state from sexual matters such as marriage, birth control, and adultery. It claimed that such issues were the concern of the people involved, and no one else.[1] Many people believe marriage is an important aspect of life to "fulfil earthly human happiness." While the phrase free love is often associated with promiscuity in the popular imagination, especially in reference to the counterculture of the 1960s and 1970s, historically the free-love movement has not advocated multiple sexual partners or short-term sexual relationships. The term "sex radical" is also used interchangeably with the term "free lover", and was the preferred term by advocates because of the negative connotations of "free love". The women's movement[edit] The history of free love is entwined with the history of feminism. In the 1850s, Hannah R.

Leninism The Russian revolutionary Lenin (Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov) c. 1920. Functionally, the Leninist vanguard party provided to the working class the political consciousness (education and organisation), and the revolutionary leadership necessary to depose capitalism in Imperial Russia. After the October Revolution of 1917, Leninism was the dominant version of Marxism in Russia, and then the official state ideology of Soviet democracy (by workers’ council) in the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (RSFSR), before its unitary amalgamation into the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in 1922.[1] In 1925–29 post-Lenin Russia, Joseph Stalin integrated Leninism to Marxist economics, and developed Marxism–Leninism, which then became the state ideology of the Soviet Union. Historical background[edit] Imperialism[edit] Workers of the world, unite! Leninist theory[edit] The vanguard party[edit] Democratic centralism Revolution Dictatorship of the proletariat[edit] Economics[edit]

Direct Democracy Freethought For the Ukrainian language newspaper published in Australia, see The Free Thought. Freethought or free thought is a philosophical viewpoint which holds that positions regarding truth should be formed on the basis of logic, reason, and empiricism, rather than authority, tradition, or other dogmas.[1][2][3] The cognitive application of freethought is known as "freethinking", and practitioners of freethought are known as "freethinkers".[1][4] Freethought holds that individuals should not accept ideas proposed as truth without recourse to knowledge and reason. Thus, freethinkers strive to build their opinions on the basis of facts, scientific inquiry, and logical principles, independent of any logical fallacies or the intellectually limiting effects of authority, confirmation bias, cognitive bias, conventional wisdom, popular culture, prejudice, sectarianism, tradition, urban legend, and all other dogmas. Symbol[edit] The pansy, symbol of freethought History[edit] Pre-modern movement[edit]

Communist state Map of countries that declared themselves to be socialist states under the Marxist–Leninist or Maoist definition - that is to say, "Communist states" - between 1979 and 1983. This period marked the greatest territorial extent of Communist states. In a Communist state, the Communist party is the nucleus of socialist society. Other parties may function alongside the Communist party occasionally, but parties advocating the restoration of capitalism are typically prohibited. Using Marxism-Leninism as a method of understanding the material and social conditions of society, the Communist party governs according to what the society's historical and national characteristics demand in order to unleash the productive forces and further advance towards communism. This has been done through a variety of methods in conforming to local circumstances. During the 20th century, the world's first constitutionally socialist state was in Russia in 1917. Types of socialist states State institutions Criticism

Grèce : la Démocratie C'est en 507 avant J.C. qu'est née la démocratie dans la cité. Les grands principes de ce régime politique (littéralement "gouvernement par et pour le peuple") n'ont aujourd'hui pas changés. À l'époque, environ 40.000 personnes sur les 250.000 qui peuplaient l'Attique étaient des citoyens, c'est à dire qu'il avaient plus de 20 ans, qu'ils étaient de sexe masculin, libres (non-esclaves) et nés de parents athéniens. Ceux-là, et ceux-là seulement, avaient le privilège de siéger à "l'Ecclésia" (l'assemblée du peuple). Comment étaient représentés tous les citoyens ? C'est simple : chaque village s'appellait une dème. Les débats Chaque tribu élisait 50 représentants à l'Ecclésia : ils étaient nommés pour un an. Liturgies et mishtoï Il y avait bien sûr de nombreuses différences de revenus entre les citoyens, car ceux-ci pouvaient aussi bien être médecins qu'agriculteurs. La justice Il y avait à Athènes un tribunal du peuple, appellé l'Héliée. Devoirs du citoyen athénien L'ostracisme

Collectivist anarchism For the collectivization of the means of production, it was originally envisaged that workers will revolt and forcibly collectivize the means of production.[1] Once collectivization takes place, money would be abolished to be replaced with labour notes and workers' salaries would be determined, in democratic organizations of voluntary membership, based on job difficulty and the amount of time they contributed to production. These salaries would be used to purchase goods in a communal market.[2] This contrasts with anarcho-communism where wages would be abolished, and where individuals would take freely from a storehouse of goods "to each according to his need." Thus, Bakunin's "Collectivist Anarchism," notwithstanding the title, is seen as a blend of individualism and collectivism.[3] Collectivist anarchism is most commonly associated with Mikhail Bakunin, the anti-authoritarian sections of the First International, and the early Spanish anarchist movement. The First International[edit]

Anarchism The central tendency of anarchism as a social movement has been represented by anarcho-communism and anarcho-syndicalism, with individualist anarchism being primarily a literary phenomenon[25] which nevertheless did have an impact on the bigger currents[26] and individualists have also participated in large anarchist organisations.[27][28] Many anarchists oppose all forms of aggression, supporting self-defense or non-violence (anarcho-pacifism),[29][30] while others have supported the use of some coercive measures, including violent revolution and propaganda of the deed, on the path to an anarchist society.[31] Etymology and terminology[edit] The term anarchism is a compound word composed from the word anarchy and the suffix -ism,[32] themselves derived respectively from the Greek ἀναρχία, i.e. anarchy[33][34][35] (from ἄναρχος, anarchos, meaning "one without rulers";[36] from the privative prefix ἀν- (an-, i.e. History[edit] Origins[edit] First International and the Paris Commune[edit]

Individualist anarchism Overview[edit] Individualist anarchism of different kinds have a few things in common. These are: 1. 2. 3. For American anarchist historian Eunice Minette Schuster, American individualist anarchism "stresses the isolation of the individual — his right to his own tools, his mind, his body, and to the products of his labor. In European individualist anarchism a different social context helped the rise of European individualist illegalism and as such "The illegalists were proletarians who had nothing to sell but their labour power, and nothing to discard but their dignity; if they disdained waged-work, it was because of its compulsive nature. Another important tendency within individualist anarchist currents emphasizes individual subjective exploration and defiance of social conventions. On the issue of violence opinions have gone from a violentist point of view mainly exemplified by illegalism and insurrectionary anarchism to one that can be called anarcho-pacifist. Early influences[edit]

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