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Direct democracy

Direct democracy
Direct democracy (also known as pure democracy)[1] is a form of democracy in which people decide (e.g. vote on, form consensus on, etc.) policy initiatives directly, as opposed to a representative democracy in which people vote for representatives who then decide policy initiatives.[2] Depending on the particular system in use, it might entail passing executive decisions, the use of sortition, making laws, directly electing or dismissing officials and conducting trials. Two leading forms of direct democracy are participatory democracy and deliberative democracy. Most countries that are representative democracies allow for three forms of political action that provide limited direct democracy: referendum (plebiscite), initiative, and recall[citation needed]. Referendums can include the ability to hold a binding vote on whether a given law should be rejected. History[edit] Modern-era citizen lawmaking began in the towns of Switzerland in the 13th century. Examples[edit] Ancient Athens[edit]

Related:  Belle LettresTheory

Bertrand Russell, Prologue of Autobiography The Prologue to Bertrand Russell's Autobiography Three passions, simple but overwhelmingly strong, have governed my life: the longing for love, the search for knowledge, and unbearable pity for the suffering of mankind. These passions, like great winds, have blown me hither and thither, in a wayward course, over a great ocean of anguish, reaching to the very verge of despair.

Open-source governance Open-source governance is a political philosophy which advocates the application of the philosophies of the open source and open content movements to democratic principles in order to enable any interested citizen to add to the creation of policy, as with a wiki document. Legislation is democratically opened to the general citizenry, employing their collective wisdom to benefit the decision-making process and improve democracy.[1] Theories on how to constrain, limit or enable this participation vary however as much as any other political philosophy or ideology. Deliberative democracy Deliberative democracy or discursive democracy is a form of democracy in which deliberation is central to decision making. It adopts elements of both consensus decision-making and majority rule. Deliberative democracy differs from traditional democratic theory in that authentic deliberation, not mere voting, is the primary source of legitimacy for the law. Deliberative democracy is compatible with both representative democracy and direct democracy. Some practitioners and theorists use the term to encompass representative bodies whose members authentically deliberate on legislation without unequal distributions of power, while others use the term exclusively to refer to decision-making directly by lay citizens, as in direct democracy.

Anarchist communism Some forms of anarchist communism such as insurrectionary anarchism are strongly influenced by egoism and radical individualism, believing anarcho-communism is the best social system for the realization of individual freedom.[13][14][15][16] Some anarcho-communists view anarcho-communism as a way of reconciling the opposition between the individual and society.[17][18][19][20][21] Anarcho-communism developed out of radical socialist currents after the French Revolution[22][23] but was first formulated as such in the Italian section of the First International.[24] The theoretical work of Peter Kropotkin took importance later as it expanded and developed pro-organizationalist and insurrectionary anti-organizationalist sections.[25] History[edit]

Kenneth Tynan Kenneth Peacock Tynan (2 April 1927 – 26 July 1980) was an English theatre critic and writer. Making his initial impact as a critic at The Observer (1954–58, 1960–63), he praised Osborne's Look Back in Anger (1956), and encouraged the emerging wave of British theatrical talent. In 1963, Tynan was appointed as the new National Theatre Company's literary manager. An opponent of theatre censorship, Tynan was considered by many to be the first person to say 'fuck' on British television (although this is now disputed)[1] which was controversial at the time. Later in his life, he settled in California where he resumed his writing career.

Libertarian socialism Overview[edit] Libertarian socialism is a Western philosophy with diverse interpretations, though some general commonalities can be found in its many incarnations. It advocates a worker-oriented system of production and organization in the workplace that in some aspects radically departs from neoclassical economics in favor of democratic cooperatives or common ownership of the means of production (socialism).[38] They propose that this economic system be executed in a manner that attempts to maximize the liberty of individuals and minimize concentration of power or authority (libertarianism). August 17, 1860 edition of libertarian Communist publication Le Libertaire edited by Joseph Déjacque. In a chapter recounting the history of libertarian socialism, economist Robin Hahnel relates that thus far the period where libertarian socialism has had its greatest impact was at the end of the 19th century through the first four decades of the twentieth century. Anti-capitalism[edit]

E-democracy E-democracy (a combination of the words electronic and democracy) incorporates 21st-century information and communications technology to promote democracy. That means a form of government in which all adult citizens are presumed to be eligible to participate equally in the proposal, development, and creation of laws.[1] E-democracy encompasses social, economic and cultural conditions that enable the free and equal practice of political self-determination. History[edit] During the 20th century democratic participation was frequently restricted to a wealthy clique that was periodically selected via the election of delegates from political parties which had developed a manifesto. Virtual social networks matured at the beginning of the 21st century, enabling the emergence of flashmobs. Following the financial crisis of 2007–08 a number of social networks proposed demonstrations such as the Occupy movement or the 15-M Movement, which started in Spain and spread to other European countries.

W. H. D. Rouse Life[edit] Born in Calcutta, India on 30 May 1863,[1] when the family returned home on leave to Britain Rouse was sent to Regent's Park College in London, where he studied as a lay student. In 1881 he gained a scholarship to Christ's College, Cambridge.[2] Rouse gained a double first in the Classical Tripos at the University of Cambridge, where he also studied Sanskrit. He became a Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge in 1888.[3] After brief spells at Bedford School (1886-1888) and Cheltenham College (1890-1895),[4] he became a schoolmaster at Rugby School, where he encouraged Arthur Ransome - against his parents' wishes - to become a writer. Ransome later wrote, "My greatest piece of good fortune in coming to Rugby was that I passed so low into the school ... that I came at once into the hands of a most remarkable man whom I might otherwise never have met.

What Is Anarchism? An Introduction Publisher’s Introduction We are often asked to explain what anarchism is all about, and hope to publish a revised and expanded version of Nicolas Walter’s popular About Anarchism when it is ready. Meanwhile we suggested to Donald Rooum, creator of the anarchist Wildcat cartoons, that he should produce a pamphlet on Anarchism. The first part of this compilation (pages 1 to 28) is his response. He writes, “My contribution is intended to describe anarchism as it appears to anarchists in general, in Britain at the end of the twentieth century. Proxy voting Proxy voting is a form of voting whereby some members of a decision-making body may delegate their voting power to other members of the same body to vote in their absence, and/or to select additional representatives. A person so designated is called a "proxy" and the person designating him or her is called a "principal". Proxy appointments can be used to form a voting bloc that can exercise greater influence in deliberations or negotiations. Proxy voting is a particularly important practice with respect to corporations; in the United States, investment advisers often vote proxies on behalf of their client accounts.[1] The United States parliamentary manual Riddick's Rules of Procedure notes that, under proxy voting, voting for officers should be done by ballot, due to the difficulties involved in authentication if a member simply calls out, "I cast 17 votes for Mr. X

untitled Hearing Christopher Ricks speak about his early encounters with the Eng Lit canon, it seems almost inevitable that his career as a literary critic would see him, more than half a century later, the Warren professor of humanities at Boston and professor of poetry at Oxford, having held the King Edward VII professorship at Cambridge. How many other schoolboys would even have realised, let alone celebrated, their "terrific luck" that two English teachers, both liked and respected, disagreed profoundly as to whether Paradise Lost was any good? And how many others would have reached for Milton's epic as a strategy for dealing with the vicissitudes of school life? "Like many people I sometimes had to protect myself at school, and I did it partly through snobbery," explains Ricks. "And that included thinking that I must be the only person at school who was reading Paradise Lost for pleasure.