Advertising research Advertising research is a specialized form of marketing research conducted to improve the efficiency of advertising. History 1879 - N. 1895 - Harlow Gale of the University of Minnesota mails questionnaires to gather opinions about advertising from the public. 1900s - George B. 1910s - 1911 can be considered the year marketing research becomes an industry. 1920s - In 1922, Dr. 1930s - In 1936, Dr. 1940s - Post World War II, the U.S. sees a large increase in the number of market research companies. 1950s - Market researchers focus on improving methods and measures. 1960s - Qualitative focus groups gain in popularity. In addition, some advertisers call for more rigorous measurement of the in-market effectiveness of advertising in order to provide better accountability for the large amounts being spent on advertising. 1970s - Computers emerge as business tools, allowing researchers to conduct large-scale data manipulations. Types of advertising research Pre-testing
Perfect Persuasive Messages Craft messages that change minds using these 20 principles of persuasion, all based on established psychological research. Perfection is hard to achieve in any walk of life and persuasion is no different. It relies on many things going just right at the crucial moment; the perfect synchronisation of source, message and audience. But even if perfection is unlikely, we all need to know what to aim for. To bring you the current series on the psychology of persuasion I’ve been reading lots of research, much more than is covered in recent posts. As I read, I noticed the same themes cropping up over and over again. Here are the most important points for crafting the perfect persuasive message, all of which have scientific evidence to back them up. Change minds You should be aware that many of these factors interact with each other. Argument strength is also critical. Image credit: Maigh
Cialdini's Six Principles of Influence - Communication Skills Training from MindTools Convincing Others to Say "Yes" (Also known as the Six Weapons of Influence) How do you influence others? © iStockphoto/blackred You've come up with a fantastic idea for a new product. Now you need to convince everyone to support it. However, you haven't had much success with this in the past. Influencing others is challenging, which is why it's worth understanding the psychological principles behind the influencing process. This is where it's useful to know about Cialdini's Six Principles of Influence. In this article, we'll examine these principles, and we'll look at how you can apply them to influence others. About the Six Principles The Six Principles of Influence (also known as the Six Weapons of Influence) were created by Robert Cialdini, Regents' Professor Emeritus of Psychology and Marketing at Arizona State University. The six principles are as follows: 1. As humans, we generally aim to return favors, pay back debts, and treat others as they treat us. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Warning: Reciprocity
Mind control Mind control (also known as brainwashing, coercive persuasion, thought control, or thought reform) is an indoctrination process which results in "an impairment of autonomy, an inability to think independently, and a disruption of beliefs and affiliations. In this context, brainwashing refers to the involuntary reeducation of basic beliefs and values" The term has been applied to any tactic, psychological or otherwise, which can be seen as subverting an individual's sense of control over their own thinking, behavior, emotions or decision making. Theories of brainwashing and of mind control were originally developed to explain how totalitarian regimes appeared to succeed systematically in indoctrinating prisoners of war through propaganda and torture techniques. These theories were later expanded and modified by psychologists including Jean-Marie Abgrall and Margaret Singer to explain a wider range of phenomena, especially conversions to new religious movements (NRMs).
List of cognitive biases Systematic patterns of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment Cognitive biases are systematic patterns of deviation from norm and/or rationality in judgment. They are often studied in psychology, sociology and behavioral economics. Although the reality of most of these biases is confirmed by reproducible research, there are often controversies about how to classify these biases or how to explain them. Several theoretical causes are known for some cognitive biases, which provides a classification of biases by their common generative mechanism (such as noisy information-processing). Explanations include information-processing rules (i.e., mental shortcuts), called heuristics, that the brain uses to produce decisions or judgments. There are also controversies over some of these biases as to whether they count as useless or irrational, or whether they result in useful attitudes or behavior. Belief, decision-making and behavioral Social Memory 
List of confidence tricks This list of confidence tricks and scams should not be considered complete, but covers the most common examples. Confidence tricks and scams are difficult to classify, because they change often and often contain elements of more than one type. Throughout this list, the perpetrator of the confidence trick is called the “con artist” or simply “artist”, and the intended victim is the “mark”. Get-rich-quick schemes Get-rich-quick schemes are extremely varied; these include fake franchises, real estate “sure things”, get-rich-quick books, wealth-building seminars, self-help gurus, sure-fire inventions, useless products, chain letters, fortune tellers, quack doctors, miracle pharmaceuticals, foreign exchange fraud, Nigerian money scams, charms and talismans. Variations include the pyramid scheme, the Ponzi scheme, and the Matrix sale. Count Victor Lustig sold the “money-printing machine” which he claimed could copy $100 bills. Salting  Spanish Prisoner  Persuasion tricks
Subliminal stimuli Subliminal stimuli (/sʌbˈlɪmɨnəl/; literally "below threshold"), contrary to supraliminal stimuli or "above threshold", are any sensory stimuli below an individual's threshold for conscious perception. A recent review of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies shows that subliminal stimuli activate specific regions of the brain despite participants being unaware. Visual stimuli may be quickly flashed before an individual can process them, or flashed and then masked, thereby interrupting the processing. Audio stimuli may be played below audible volumes or masked by other stimuli. Effectiveness The effectiveness in subliminal messaging has been demonstrated to prime individual responses and stimulate mild emotional activity. Applications, however, often base themselves on the persuasiveness of the message. Method Objective threshold Subjective threshold Direct and Indirect measures Visual stimuli Images Auditory stimuli
the observer effect 7 Social Hacks For Manipulating People 1. Whenever someone is angry and confrontational, stand next to them instead of in front of them. You won’t appear as so much of a threat, and they eventually calm down. 2. Open with “I need your help.” 3. 4. 5. 6. Symbolism Symbolism or symbolist may refer to: Arts Religion Religious symbolism, symbolic interpretations of religious ritual and mythology Buddhist symbolism, the use of Buddhist art to represent certain aspects of dhamma, which began in the 4th century BCEChristian symbolism, the use of symbols, including archetypes, acts, artwork or events, by ChristianityJewish symbolism, a visible religious token of the relation between God and manReligious symbols, use of graphical abstractions to represent religious concepts Science Symbolic anthropology, the study of cultural symbols and how those symbols can be interpreted to better understand a particular societySymbolic system, a system of interconnected symbolic meaningsSolar symbol, a symbol which represents the Sun in psychoanalysis, symbolism, semiotics, or other fields See also
Cognitive dissonance - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - StumbleUpon In psychology, cognitive dissonance is the mental stress or discomfort experienced by an individual who holds two or more contradictory beliefs, ideas, or values at the same time, or is confronted by new information that conflicts with existing beliefs, ideas, or values. Leon Festinger's theory of cognitive dissonance focuses on how humans strive for internal consistency. When inconsistency (dissonance) is experienced, individuals tend to become psychologically uncomfortable and they are motivated to attempt to reduce this dissonance, as well as actively avoiding situations and information which are likely to increase it. Relationship between cognitions Individuals can adjust their attitudes or actions in various ways. Consonant relationship – Two cognitions/actions that are consistent with one another (e.g., not wanting to get intoxicated while out, then ordering water instead of alcohol) Magnitude of dissonance Reducing Theory and research Examples E.
Get Anyone to Like You – Instantly – Guaranteed Get anyone to like you - Instantly - Guaranteed If you want people to like you, make them feel good about themselves. This golden rule of friendship works every time - guaranteed! The principle is straightforward. The simple communication techniques that follow will help you keep the focus of the conversation on the person you are talking to and make them feel good about themselves. The Big Three Our brains continually scan the environment for friend or foe signals. Eyebrow Flash The eyebrow flash is a quick up and down movement of the eyebrows. Head Tilt The head tilt is a slight tilt of the head to one side or the other. Smile A smile sends the message "I like you." Empathic Statements Empathic statements keep the focus on the other person. Example 1 George : I've been really busy this week. Tom : So you didn't have much free time in the last few days. Example 2 Tom : Free time has been at a premium in the last several days. Flattery Asking a Favor