The Limits of Intelligence Santiago Ramón y Cajal, the Spanish Nobel-winning biologist who mapped the neural anatomy of insects in the decades before World War I, likened the minute circuitry of their vision-processing neurons to an exquisite pocket watch. He likened that of mammals, by comparison, to a hollow-chested grandfather clock. Indeed, it is humbling to think that a honeybee, with its milligram-size brain, can perform tasks such as navigating mazes and landscapes on a par with mammals. A honeybee may be limited by having comparatively few neurons, but it surely seems to squeeze everything it can out of them. At the other extreme, an elephant, with its five-million-fold larger brain, suffers the inefficiencies of a sprawling Mesopotamian empire. Signals take more than 100 times longer to travel between opposite sides of its brain—and also from its brain to its foot, forcing the beast to rely less on reflexes, to move more slowly, and to squander precious brain resources on planning each step.
How to increase serotonin in the human brain without drugs Visual Processing: Cortical Pathways (Section 2, Chapter 15 The visual system is unique as much of visual processing occurs outside the brain within the retina of the eye. The previous chapter described how the light-sensitive receptors of the eye convert the image projected onto the retina into spatially distributed neural activity in the first neurons of the visual pathway (i.e., the photoreceptors). Within the retina, the receptors synapse with bipolar and horizontal cells, which establish the basis for brightness and color contrasts. 15.1 The Visual Pathway from Retina to Cortex As noted previously in the somatosensory sections, all sensory information must reach the cerebral cortex to be perceived and, with one exception, reach the cortex by way of the thalamus. The Optic Nerve The axons of the 3° visual afferents (the retinal ganglion cells) form the optic nerve fiber layer of the retina on their course to the optic disc. The axons in the optic tract terminate in four nuclei within the brain (Figure 15.2): The Lateral Geniculate Nucleus
Le journalisme « hacker » À New York, Chicago, Londres, Helsinki ou Buenos Aires, plusieurs centaines de personnes se rencontrent régulièrement, souvent dans des arrières salles de bars ou des salles de conférences . Ils sont étudiants, journalistes, programmeurs ou chefs de projet web, et ils appellent ces réunions informelles des rencontres « hacks/hackers ». « Hacks » est une façon de dénommer les journalistes tandis que « hackers » désigne des passionnés d’informatique. À travers la présentation d’applications informatiques développées pour des sites d’information, la formation à des langages de programmation ou plus simplement la mise en relation de journalistes et de programmeurs, les animateurs de ce réseau veulent relier le monde de la presse aux mondes informatiques de façon à transformer et même « réinitialiser » le journalisme. Les liens entre la presse et les mondes informatiques se sont incontestablement développés ces dernières années. Pourquoi des codeurs s’intéressent-ils à la presse ?
Project Based Learning Introducing an irresistible project at the beginning of a unit of study can give students a clear and meaningful reason for learning. Plus, they end up with a product or result that could possibility make a difference in the world! In project based learning students are driven to learn content and skills for an authentic purpose. PBL involves students in explaining their answers to real-life questions, problems, or challenges. Technology can be helpful throughout a project, whether students use iPads, Chromebooks, Android tablets, laptops, or desktops.
Brain-based learning, ideas, and materials Fixing Cognitive Distortions Cognitive distortions have a way of playing havoc with our lives. If we let them. This kind of “stinkin’ thinkin’” can be “undone,” but it takes effort and lots of practice — every day. If you want to stop the irrational thinking, you can start by trying out the exercises below. 1. We need to create a list of our troublesome thoughts and examine them later for matches with a list of cognitive distortions. 2. A thorough examination of an experience allows us to identify the basis for our distorted thoughts. 3. An alternative to “self-talk” that is harsh and demeaning is to talk to ourselves in the same compassionate and caring way that we would talk with a friend in a similar situation. 4. Instead of thinking about our problem or predicament in an either-or polarity, evaluate things on a scale of 0-100. 5. We need to seek the opinions of others regarding whether our thoughts and attitudes are realistic. 6. 7. 8. Reference: Burns, D.D. (1989). Dr. APA Reference Grohol, J. (2009).
Current Biology - Separate Processing of Different Global-Motion Structures in Visual Cortex Is Revealed by fMRI Figure 1 A Schematic Description of the Motion Stimuli (A) The subjects viewed a radial-motion, translation-motion, or random-motion stimulus in 16 s epochs. The global-motion types were changed in a random order every 16 s. (B) The translation-motion display consisted of two sets of global motion. In one set, the motion directions of the dots were limited to a 45° range, whereas in the other set, the motion directions of the dots were limited to the opposite 45° range. Figure 2 Mean MR Signal Amplitudes for Each Visual Area for Each Eccentricity Each column represents the average of 24 data, i.e., 6 subjects × 4 time points. Figure 3 Activation Maps from the First Experiment (A) Activation map for radial motion in a representative subject (left hemisphere). (B) For translation motion, activation was seen in the peripheral V3 (>2°), V3A (>2°), and MT/MST. (C) Eccentricity map of the representative subject obtained from a separate experiment. Figure 4
The worsening journalistic disgrace at Wired - Glenn Greenwald For more than six months, Wired‘s Senior Editor Kevin Poulsen has possessed — but refuses to publish — the key evidence in one of the year’s most significant political stories: the arrest of U.S. Army PFC Bradley Manning for allegedly acting as WikiLeaks’ source. In late May, Adrian Lamo — at the same time he was working with the FBI as a government informant against Manning — gave Poulsen what he purported to be the full chat logs between Manning and Lamo in which the Army Private allegedly confessed to having been the source for the various cables, documents and video that WikiLeaks released throughout this year. In interviews with me in June, both Poulsen and Lamo confirmed that Lamo placed no substantive restrictions on Poulsen with regard to the chat logs: Wired was and remains free to publish the logs in their entirety. Despite that, on June 10, Wired published what it said was only “about 25 percent” of those logs, excerpts that it hand-picked. Mr. A former top U.S.
How to Use Google Search More Effectively [INFOGRAPHIC] Among certain circles (my family, some of my coworkers, etc.) I'm known for my Googling skills. I can find anything, anywhere, in no time flat. Sadly, though web searches have become and integral part of the academic research landscape, the art of the Google search is an increasingly lost one. That search process also included determining when to rely on Google and when to utilize scholarly databases, but on a fundamental level, it appears that many people just don't understand how to best find the information they seek using Google. Thanks to the folks at HackCollege, a number of my "secrets" are out. Infographic via HackCollege Image courtesy of iStockphoto, LICreate
The Ten Most Revealing Psych Experiments Psychology is the study of the human mind and mental processes in relation to human behaviors - human nature. Due to its subject matter, psychology is not considered a 'hard' science, even though psychologists do experiment and publish their findings in respected journals. Some of the experiments psychologists have conducted over the years reveal things about the way we humans think and behave that we might not want to embrace, but which can at least help keep us humble. That's something. 1. The Robbers Cave Experiment is a classic social psychology experiment conducted with two groups of 11-year old boys at a state park in Oklahoma, and demonstrates just how easily an exclusive group identity is adopted and how quickly the group can degenerate into prejudice and antagonism toward outsiders. Researcher Muzafer Sherif actually conducted a series of 3 experiments. 2. The prisoners rebelled on the second day, and the reaction of the guards was swift and brutal. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.