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Mutualism (economic theory)

Mutualism (economic theory)
Mutualism is an economic theory and anarchist school of thought that advocates a society where each person might possess a means of production, either individually or collectively, with trade representing equivalent amounts of labor in the free market.[1] Integral to the scheme was the establishment of a mutual-credit bank that would lend to producers at a minimal interest rate, just high enough to cover administration.[2] Mutualism is based on a labor theory of value that holds that when labor or its product is sold, in exchange, it ought to receive goods or services embodying "the amount of labor necessary to produce an article of exactly similar and equal utility".[3] Mutualism originated from the writings of philosopher Pierre-Joseph Proudhon. Mutualists have distinguished mutualism from state socialism, and do not advocate state control over the means of production. Mutualism, as a term, has seen a variety of related uses. For historian of the First International G. Related:  *docs9-15 Ene

Peter Kropotkin Prince Pyotr Alexeyevich Kropotkin (Russian: Пётр Алексе́евич Кропо́ткин; 9 December 1842 – 8 February 1921) was a Russian zoologist, evolutionary theorist, philosopher, scientist, revolutionary, philologist, economist, activist, geographer, writer, and prominent anarchist. Kropotkin advocated a communist society free from central government and based on voluntary associations between workers. He wrote many books, pamphlets and articles, the most prominent being The Conquest of Bread and Fields, Factories and Workshops, and his principal scientific offering, Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution. He also contributed the article on anarchism to the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition.[11] Biography[edit] Early life[edit] Kropotkin was born in Moscow, into the second-highest level of the Russian aristocracy. "[U]nder the influence of republican teachings," Kropotkin dropped his princely title at the age of twelve, and "even rebuked his friends, when they so referred to him Kropotkin in 1864

Apio Ludd | Union Of Egoists The writer known as Apio Ludd is a current nom de plume of a contemporary egoist/anarchist philosopher involved in theoretical and practical activity. He has also gone by the name Wolfi Landstreicher (“Landstreicher” is the German word for vagabond, tramp) and Feral Faun (from approximately 1982 to 1992). EDITORIAL NOTE: Because Apio is living, I would like to make a declaration that he has in no way given permission or approval for his inclusion on this site. He has, to my knowledge, said nothing about it at all. He edited the anarchist publication Willful Disobedience, which was published from 1996 until 2005, and currently publishes a variety of anarchist, radical, surrealist and poetic pamphlets and booklets. He currently publishes explicitly egoist journal My Own, since 2012. His ideas are influenced by insurrectionary anarchism, Max Stirner’s egoism, surrealism, the Situationist International and non-primitivist critiques of civilization. This is a short piece:

The Conquest of Bread The Conquest of Bread (French: La Conquête du Pain) (Russian: Хлеб и воля) is a book by the anarchist communist Peter Kropotkin. Originally written in French, it first appeared as a series of articles in the anarchist journals Le Révolté and La Révolte (both edited by Kropotkin). It was first published as a book in Paris in 1892 with a preface by Élisée Reclus, who also suggested the title. Between 1892 and 1894 it was serialised, in part, in the London journal Freedom, of which Kropotkin was a co-founder. See also[edit] External links[edit]

Hong Kong's 'villain hitters' use sorcery to vent political anger | World news Feeling down about Donald Trump’s election and hope he will fail? Want to curse Nigel Farage for leading the UK to Brexit? A group of sorcerers in Hong Kong have what you need, and a track record they say proves their success. Known locally as “villain hitters”, the group of mostly elderly women set up stall every day under a flyover in the former British colony’s busiest shopping district. As his popularity plummeted, Hong Kong’s leader, Leung Chun-ying, has been increasingly in the crosshairs of the roadside retribution vendors. “During the hitting, we ask the gods of heaven and earth to punish the villains, to make them less dominant,” said Wong Gat-lei, a third-generation villain hitter who has been casting spells for more than 20 years. “People want to weaken others through villain hitting to achieve peace of mind,” she said. Once it has been beaten to shreds, the sorcerers rub the remains with a slab of pork fat and burn it.

Studies in Mutualist Political Economy The book is divided in three parts. Part One "attempts to resurrect the classical labor theory of value, to answer the attacks of its marginalist and subjectivist critics, and at the same time to reformulate the theory in a way that both addresses their valid criticisms and incorporates their useful innovations."[3] Part Two "analyzes the origins of capitalism in light of this theoretical apparatus;".[4] Part Three "is a vision of mutualist practice, building both on our own previous theoretical analysis, and on the rich history of anarchist thought."[5] References[edit] External links[edit] A review by fellow mutualist Larry Gambone

PIEDRA Y POLVO DE ALUMBRE CONTRA MAL DE OJO, ENVIDIAS Y ENERGIAS NEGATIVAS | TIENDA ESOTERICA La piedra de alumbre es utilizada desde la antigüedad por sus múltiples aplicaciones. Como su nombre dice, sirve para “alumbrar”, para dar luz en la oscuridad. Es un mineral purificador por excelencia. Bolsa de 40 grs. - El precio de la bolsa de polvo de piedra azul es de 12.00 € (Euros) o de 16.00 $ (si prefieres pagar en Dolares USA). - La forma de pago se realiza por transferencia bancaria o por Paypal.- Para realizar tu pedido debes enviarme un e-mail a: Por su poder catalizador, absorbe la negatividad del ambiente en donde el polvo se deposita, y cuando se coloca en agua, cristaliza, recogiendo la negatividad y atrapándola en los cristales. Se utiliza bajo la invocación: Abraham, Jacob, Isaac y Eliseo. Se utiliza para: - Quitar todo tipo de energías negativas. - Dar luz a los espíritus. - Elevar la materia. - Quitar envidias. - Contra pesadillas. - Alejar malos espíritus. - Protector contra mal de ojo. - Talismán protector. Dar luz a los espíritus: Quitar envidias: Contra pesadillas e insomnio:

Joseph Déjacque Joseph Déjacque (French: [deʒak]; December 27, 1821, Paris – 1864, Paris) was a French early anarcho-communist poet and writer. Déjacque was the first recorded person to employ the term libertarian (French: libertaire) for himself[1][2] in a political sense, in a letter written in 1857 criticizing Pierre-Joseph Proudhon for his sexist views on women, his support of individual ownership of the product of labor, and of a market economy, saying: "it is not the product of his or her labor that the worker has a right to, but to the satisfaction of his or her needs, whatever may be their nature."[3] Life[edit] Of unknown origins, Déjacque was first heard of when arrested as part of the revolutionary upheavals in France in 1848. Social philosophy[edit] Déjacque's anti-authoritarian communism[edit] Le Libertaire, Journal du mouvement social. He also thought that "government, religion, property, family, all are linked, all coincide.’ The debate with Pierre Joseph Proudhon[edit] See also[edit]

“El Alumbre: propiedades y usos mágicos” | maestroviejo Se obtiene de una roca magmática, de origen volcánico, denominada traquita alunífera, que una vez procesada se convierte en alumbre potásico. Los depósitos minerales de alumbre se originan en distintas fases del largo proceso geológico que sufren las rocas volcánicas, procedentes de la masa en fusión existente en el interior de la tierra. Los cristales de alumbre puedan tener variaciones en apariencia, color o textura, aunque todos mantienen sus propiedades. Plinius, escritor y famoso naturalista romano, fue el primero en llamarlo “Alumen Romanum” en su “Naturalis Historia” y el griego Dioscórides da buena cuenta de este mineral en su obra “De Materia Médica”, todo un tratado de referencia. Poco después, en 1462, se descubrieron las famosas minas de Tolfa, en la región italiana de Pádua y durante un siglo, el mineral de alumbre fue transportado por mar desde el puerto de Civitavechia hasta los de Venecia, Génova, Marsella, Barcelona e incluso a puertos del Mar del Norte. Características

Kevin Carson Carson describes his politics as on "the outer fringes of both free market libertarianism and socialism." He has identified the work of Benjamin Tucker, Thomas Hodgskin, Ralph Borsodi, Lewis Mumford, and Ivan Illich as sources of inspiration for his approach to politics and economics.[1] Thought[edit] In addition to individualist anarchist Benjamin Tucker's "big four" monopolies (land, money, tariffs, and patents), Carson argues that the state has also transferred wealth to the wealthy by subsidizing organizational centralization, in the form of transportation and communication subsidies. He believes that Tucker overlooked this issue due to Tucker's focus on individual market transactions, whereas Carson also focuses on organizational issues. Free markets vs. capitalism[edit] Unlike some other market anarchists, Carson defines capitalism in historical terms, emphasizing the history of state intervention in market economies. "Vulgar libertarianism"[edit] Carson writes that Criticisms[edit]

What if jobs are not the solution but the problem? | Aeon Essays Work means everything to us Americans. For centuries – since, say, 1650 – we’ve believed that it builds character (punctuality, initiative, honesty, self-discipline, and so forth). We’ve also believed that the market in labour, where we go to find work, has been relatively efficient in allocating opportunities and incomes. And we’ve believed that, even if it sucks, a job gives meaning, purpose and structure to our everyday lives – at any rate, we’re pretty sure that it gets us out of bed, pays the bills, makes us feel responsible, and keeps us away from daytime TV. These beliefs are no longer plausible. These days, everybody from Left to Right – from the economist Dean Baker to the social scientist Arthur C Brooks, from Bernie Sanders to Donald Trump – addresses this breakdown of the labour market by advocating ‘full employment’, as if having a job is self-evidently a good thing, no matter how dangerous, demanding or demeaning it is. Don’t take my word for it, look at the numbers. Why?

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon Proudhon, who was born in Besançon, was a printer who taught himself Latin in order to better print books in the language. His best-known assertion is that Property is Theft!, contained in his first major work, What is Property? Or, an Inquiry into the Principle of Right and Government (Qu'est-ce que la propriété? Recherche sur le principe du droit et du gouvernement), published in 1840. The book's publication attracted the attention of the French authorities. Proudhon favored workers' associations or co-operatives, as well as individual worker/peasant possession, over private ownership or the nationalization of land and workplaces. Biography Early life and education Proudhon was born in Besançon, France on February 15, 1809, at 37 Rue du Petit Battant in the suburb of Battant.[6] His father, Claude-François Proudhon who worked as a brewer and a cooper,[7] was originally from the village of Chasnans, near the border with Switzerland. Entrance into the printing trade Early writings Death