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The Grammar of TV and Film

Zoom. In zooming in the camera does not move; the lens is focussed down from a long-shot to a close-up whilst the picture is still being shown. The subject is magnified, and attention is concentrated on details previously invisible as the shot tightens (contrast tracking). It may be used to surprise the viewer. Zooming out reveals more of the scene (perhaps where a character is, or to whom he or she is speaking) as the shot widens. Zooming in rapidly brings not only the subject but also the background hurtling towards the viewer, which can be disconcerting. Following pan. Surveying pan. Tilt. Crab. Tracking (dollying). Hand-held camera. Process shot. Editing Techniques Cut. There is always a reason for a cut, and you should ask yourself what the reason is. Matched cut. continuity of direction; completed action;* a similar centre of attention in the frame; a one-step change of shot size (e.g. long to medium); a change of angle (conventionally at least 30 degrees). Jump cut. Cutting rate.

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