Benedict de Spinoza was among the most important of the post-Cartesian philosophers who flourished in the second half of the 17th century. He made significant contributions in virtually every area of philosophy, and his writings reveal the influence of such divergent sources as Stoicism, Jewish Rationalism, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Descartes, and a variety of heterodox religious thinkers of his day. For this reason he is difficult to categorize, though he is usually counted, along with Descartes and Leibniz, as one of the three major Rationalists. Among philosophers, Spinoza is best known for his Ethics, a monumental work that presents an ethical vision unfolding out of a monistic metaphysics in which God and Nature are identified. Table of Contents 1. Spinoza came into the world a Jew. The young Spinoza, given the name Baruch, was educated in his congregation's academy, the Talmud Torah school. Spinoza's intellectual reorientation, however, came at a cost. 2. 3. a. i. ii. iii. b. i. ii.
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Aristotle BiographyThe Early Years Aristotle, the greatest and most influential of all the Greek philosophers, was born in 384 BC in the town of Stageria (near Macedonia, on the northern peninsula of Greece). His father, Nicomachus, was a friend and physician to King Amyntas of Macedonia. Nicomachus belonged to a large family of physicians and healers who are believed to hold this position under various kings of Macedonia. As a boy, Aristotle most likely watched his father treating patients and making medicines from parts of plants and animals. Aristotle's parents died when he was just a boy, ending his plans to take up medicine. The Academy In 367 BC, when Aristotle was seventeen, he left Stageria to study at Plato's Academy in Athens, the heart of the intellectual world at the time. The Academy encouraged their students to let their minds and thoughts roam free. As Aristotle's own knowledge increased, he began to question Plato's views and methods of the Academy. The First Naturalist Tutor to the Great
Stanford Overview1. Biography Bento (in Hebrew, Baruch; in Latin, Benedictus: all three names mean "blessed") Spinoza was born in 1632 in Amsterdam. He was the middle son in a prominent family of moderate means in Amsterdam's Portuguese-Jewish community. As a boy he had undoubtedly been one of the star pupils in the congregation's Talmud Torah school. He was intellectually gifted, and this could not have gone unremarked by the congregation's rabbis. And then, on July 27, 1656, Spinoza was issued the harshest writ of herem, or excommunication, ever pronounced by the Sephardic community of Amsterdam; it was never rescinded. To all appearances, Spinoza was content finally to have an excuse for departing from the community and leaving Judaism behind; his faith and religious commitment were, by this point, gone. 2. The Ethics is an ambitious and multifaceted work. 2.1 God or Nature “On God” begins with some deceptively simple definitions of terms that would be familiar to any seventeenth century philosopher.
Polaris Music PrizeThe 2009 Polaris Music Prize Winner - Fucked Up Artist: Fucked UpAlbum: The Chemistry Of Common LifeFrom: TorontoLinks:Website So people say Canadian songwriting is ironic and distanced? Carl Wilson, Globe And Mail, Toronto The 2009 Polaris Music Prize Short List Nominees Artist: Elliott BROODAlbum: Mountain MeadowsFrom: TorontoLinks:Website Mountain Meadows has the old-shoe familiarity that’s essential to good roots music, but there’s something wild and dangerous around the edges that flashes like heat lightning and crackles like ozone. Jill Wilson, Winnipeg Free Press, Winnipeg Artist: Great Lake SwimmersAlbum: Lost ChannelsFrom: TorontoLinks:Website Lost Channels isn’t a record you listen to. Amanda Ash, freelance journalist, Vancouver Artist: Hey Rosetta! From Newfoundland you say? Roch Parisien, Galaxie Folks Roots, Ottawa Artist: K'NAANAlbum: TroubadourFrom: TorontoLinks:Website My first experience with K’NAAN’s Troubadour album was a complete revelation. Robert Benson, Bravo, Toronto
Spinoza: the first modern pantheistA history of pantheism and scientific pantheism by Paul Harrison. Are you a pantheist? Find out now at the Scientific Pantheism site. God is one, that is, only one substance can be granted in the universe. Spinoza was born in Amsterdam in 1632, into a family of Jewish emigrants fleeing persecution in Portugal. Spinoza refused all rewards and honours, and gave away to his sister his share of his father's inheritance - keeping only a bedstead for himself. His philosophy is summarized in the Ethics, a very abstract work, which openly expresses none of the love of nature that might be expected from someone who identified God with nature. Spinoza believed that everything that exists is God. Significantly, Spinoza titled his chief work The Ethics. At first Spinoza was reviled as an atheist - and certainly, his God is not the conventional Judo-Christian God. All quotes are from Spinoza, Ethics, translated by R. Nothing exists but God God is the force preserving things in existence
Emergent materialismIn the philosophy of mind, emergent (or emergentist) materialism is a theory which asserts that the mind is an irreducible existent in some sense, albeit not in the sense of being an ontological simple, and that the study of mental phenomena is independent of other sciences. The view can be divided into emergence which denies mental causation and emergence which allows for causal effect. A version of the latter type has been advocated by John R. Searle, called biological naturalism. See also External links M.D.
2- Of the MindProof.--Will and understanding are nothing beyond the individual volitions and ideas (II. xlviii. and note). But a particular volition and a particular idea are one and the same (by the foregoing Prop.); therefore, will and understanding are one and the same. Q.E.D. Note. 1. 2. 3. 4.The Civilized ExplorerKant's Moral Philosophy1. Aims and Methods of Moral Philosophy The most basic aim of moral philosophy, and so also of the Groundwork, is, in Kant's view, to “seek out” the foundational principle of a metaphysics of morals. Kant pursues this project through the first two chapters of the Groundwork. He proceeds by analyzing and elucidating commonsense ideas about morality. The point of this first project is to come up with a precise statement of the principle or principles on which all of our ordinary moral judgments are based. Although these are the two fundamental aims of moral philosophy, they are not, in Kant's view, the only aims. Throughout his moral works, Kant returns time and again to the question of the method moral philosophy should employ when pursuing these aims. In one sense, it might seem obvious why Kant insists on an a priori method. Perhaps something like this was behind Kant's thinking. Contents 2. Kant's views in this regard have understandably been the subject of much controversy. 3. 4. 5.
HYLE 20-1 (2014): Whole-Parts Strategies in Quantum Chemistry: Some Philosophical and Mereological LessonsJean-Pierre Llored* Abstract: Philosophers mainly refer to quantum chemistry in order to address questions about the reducibility or autonomy of chemistry relative to quantum physics, and to argue for or against ontological emergence. To make their point, they scrutinize quantum approximations and formalisms as if they were independent of the questions at stake. This paper proposes a return to history and to the laboratory so as to emphasize how quantum chemists never cease to negotiate the relationships between a molecule, its parts, and its environment. This investigation will enable us to draw methodological conclusions about the role of history within philosophical studies, and to examine how quantum chemistry can clarify important philosophical and mereological issues related to the emergence/reduction debate, or to the way instruments and contexts are involved in the material making and the formal description of wholes and parts. 1. We divide our work into four parts. 2. 3. 4. 5.
4- Of Human Bondage or the Strength of EmotionsPROP. I. No positive quality possessed by a false idea is removed by the presence of what is true, in virtue of its being true. Proof.-- Falsity consists solely in the privation of knowledge which inadequate ideas involve ( II. xxxv. ), nor have they any positive quality on account of which they are called false ( II. xxxiii. ); contrariwise, in so far as they are referred to God, they are true ( II. xxxii. ). Wherefore, if the positive quality possessed by a false idea were removed by the presence of what is true, in virtue of its being true, a true idea would then be removed by itself, which ( III. iv. ) is absurd. Note.-- This proposition is more clearly understood from II. xvi. PROP. Corollary.-- Hence it follows, that man is necessarily always a prey to his passions, that he follows and obeys the general order of nature, and that he accommodates himself thereto, as much as the nature of things demands. PROP. PROP. PROP. PROP. PROP.