The World Factbook ShowIntroduction :: PERU Panel - Collapsed Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by Spanish conquistadors in 1533. Peru declared its independence in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces were defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime, which led to his resignation in 2000.
Machu Picchu Machu Picchu (in hispanicized spelling, Spanish pronunciation: [ˈmatʃu ˈpiktʃu]) or Machu Pikchu (Quechua machu old, old person, pikchu peak; mountain or prominence with a broad base which ends in sharp peaks, "old peak", pronunciation [ˈmɑtʃu ˈpixtʃu]) is a 15th-century Inca site located 2,430 metres (7,970 ft) above sea level. It is located in the Cusco Region, Urubamba Province, Machupicchu District in Peru. It is situated on a mountain ridge above the Sacred Valley which is 80 kilometres (50 mi) northwest of Cusco and through which the Urubamba River flows. Most archaeologists believe that Machu Picchu was built as an estate for the Inca emperor Pachacuti (1438–1472). Often mistakenly referred to as the "Lost City of the Incas", it is perhaps the most familiar icon of Inca civilization. The Incas built the estate around 1450, but abandoned it a century later at the time of the Spanish Conquest. Machu Picchu is vulnerable to threats. History Early encounters Geography
Machu Picchu's Mysteries On the morning of July 24, 1911, a tall lecturer-cum-explorer from Yale University set off in a cold drizzle to investigate rumors of ancient Inca ruins in Peru. The explorer chopped his way through thick jungle, crawled across a "bridge" of slender logs bound together with vines, and crept through underbrush hiding venomous fer-de-lance pit vipers. Two hours into the hike, the explorer and his two escorts came across a grass-covered hut. What Bingham saw was a dramatic and towering citadel of stone cut from escarpments. Certainly, what he saw was awe-invoking. Machu Picchu is formed of buildings, plazas, and platforms connected by narrow lanes or paths. Bingham's discovery was published in the April 1913 issue of magazine, bringing the mountaintop citadel to the world's attention. Bingham believed he had found Vilcabamba, the so-called Lost City of the Inca where the last of the independent Inca rulers waged a years-long battle against Spanish conquistadors. Dr.
Machu Picchu Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Machu Picchu (du quechua machu : vieille, et pikchu : montagne, sommet)[note 1] est une ancienne cité inca du XVe siècle au Pérou, perchée sur un promontoire rocheux qui unit les monts Machu Picchu et Huayna Picchu sur le versant oriental des Andes centrales. Son nom aurait été Pikchu ou Picho. Selon des documents du XVIe siècle, trouvés par l'archéologue italien Lucas Pittavino, Machu Picchu aurait été une des résidences de l’empereur Pachacútec. Abandonnée lors de l’effondrement de l'empire inca, Machu Picchu, la ville sacrée oubliée durant des siècles, est considérée comme une œuvre maîtresse de l’architecture inca. Localisation[modifier | modifier le code] Situation des ruines de Machu Picchu, dans le Cañón del Urubamba Le site se trouve à l’est de la Cordillère des Andes, aux limites de la forêt amazonienne[note 2] situé au Pérou (province d'Urubamba), à cent trente kilomètres de Cuzco[note 3]. Accès[modifier | modifier le code]
Peru Peru Peru is a country in South America, situated on the western side of that continent, facing the South Pacific Ocean and straddling part of the Andes mountain range that runs the length of South America. Peru is bordered by Ecuador and Colombia to the north, Brazil and Bolivia to the east, and Chile to the south. Understand Although Peru has rich natural resources and many great places to visit, the poverty scale reaches 25.8% of the population. The Peruvian economy is healthy and quite strong, however inequality is still common. The word gringo is used commonly but is not generally intended as offensive. Generally, people are very friendly, peaceful and helpful. Peru is not exactly a haven for efficiency. You may also want to see Tips for travel in developing countries for some useful hints. Electricity A typical power outlet found in Peru Most of Peru uses 220V, 60Hz. Time Zone Peru Time or PET. UTC/GMT -5 hours. No daylight saving time. Regions Cities 
Cusco Cusco /ˈkuːzkoʊ/, often spelled Cuzco (Spanish: Cuzco, [ˈkusko]; Quechua: Qusqu or Qosqo, IPA: [ˈqɔsqɔ]), is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes mountain range. It is the capital of the Cusco Region as well as the Cuzco Province. In 2009, the city had a population of 510,000. Located on the eastern end of the Knot of Cuzco, its elevation is around 3,400 m (11,200 ft). Cusco was the site of the historic capital of the Inca Empire and was declared a World Heritage Site in 1983 by UNESCO. Spelling and etymology The indigenous name of this city is Qusqu. "Go fly over there (they say his wings were born), and by sitting down there take possession in the very seat where that milestone appears, because we'll then settle and live there". The Spanish conquistadors adopted the local name, transliterating it into Spanish as Cuzco or less often Cozco. In English, both s and z are accepted, as there is no international, official spelling. History
The Silk Road On the eastern and western sides of the continent, the civilisations of China and the West developed. The western end of the trade route appears to have developed earlier than the eastern end, principally because of the development of the the empires in the west, and the easier terrain of Persia and Syria. The Iranian empire of Persia was in control of a large area of the Middle East, extending as far as the Indian Kingdoms to the east. This region was taken over by Alexander the Great of Macedon, who finally conquered the Iranian empire, and colonised the area in about 330 B.C., superimposing the culture of the Greeks. This `crossroads' region, covering the area to the south of the Hindu Kush and Karakorum ranges, now Pakistan and Afghanistan, was overrun by a number of different peoples. Close on the heels of the Parthians came the Yuezhi people from the Northern borders of the Taklimakan. The eastern end of the route developed rather more slowly.
Civilisation inca Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Extension maximale de l'empire inca et de ses quatre régions principales Elle est à l'origine de l'empire inca, l'un des trois grands empires de l'Amérique précolombienne, qui avait pour chef suprême le Sapa Inca. L'une des grandes singularités de cet empire fut d'avoir intégré, dans une organisation étatique originale, la multiplicité socioculturelle des populations hétérogènes qui le composaient. Histoire[modifier | modifier le code] Héritage des civilisations précédentes[modifier | modifier le code] Premiers peuplements[modifier | modifier le code] Civilisation Chavín[modifier | modifier le code] Extension de la culture Chavín (gris foncé) et de son influence (gris clair) Le développement de l'agriculture entraîna des changements sociaux importants : la population explose, des villes apparaissent et une élite religieuse se crée[Favre 2]. Tiwanaku et Huari[modifier | modifier le code] Empire Chimú[modifier | modifier le code]
Cuy - Traditional Andean Entree: Description and Recipes By Bonnie Hamre Updated January 29, 2016. Travel in the highlands of Inca country, and you're likely to be offered cuy, a traditional Andean entree, on the menu. Cuy, alternately called Cobayo or conejillo de indias is a guinea pig or cavy. The taste is compared to rabbit, thought delicious, and though difficult to accept for people in other countries who regard guinea pigs as pets, the cuy is a staple of Andean cuisine. They are called "cuy" for the sound they make cuy, cuy. The cuy has a place in pre-Colombian Inca tradition. continue reading below our video Play Video In Arequipa, it is prepared baked as cuy chaktado and in Cuzco, it is baked whole, as a small suckiling pig, with a hot pepper in its mouth. Cuys are available in the markets, already skinned and cleaned, but many recipes begin with instructions to skin the cuy in hot water, then remove the internal organs and cleanse well in salted water. A typical recipe for baked or barbequed cuy with a hot sauce:
Chankillo: Earliest American Solar Observatory located in Peru Archeologists from Yale and the University of Leicester have identified an ancient solar observatory at Chankillo (alt. Chanquillo), Peru as the oldest in the Americas with alignments covering the entire solar year, according to an article in the March 2 (2007) issue of Science . This post includes a podcast and video The fortified stone temple at Chankillo. Recorded accounts from the 16th century A.D. detail practices of state-regulated sun worship during Inca times, and related social and cosmological beliefs. At Chankillo, not only were there towers marking the sun's position throughout the year, but they remain in place, and the site was constructed much earlier - in approximately the 4th century B.C. "Archaeological research in Peru is constantly pushing back the origins of civilization in the Americas," said Ivan Ghezzi, a graduate student in the department of Anthropology at Yale University and lead author of the paper. The new evidence now identifies it as a solar observatory.
The Silk Road Project - Silk Road Maps The historical Silk Road comprised a series of land and sea trade routes that crisscrossed Eurasia from the first millennium B.C.E. through the middle of the second millennium C.E. The intersections among people from diverse cultures along the way promoted an unprecedented sharing of commodities, ideas, arts, sciences and innovations. These maps provide an overview of the Silk Road region, which stretched from Japan to the Mediterranean, though the lenses of the historical trade routes, belief systems, languages, climates and political borders. They are available as part of Along the Silk Road, a set of comprehensive curricula for middle school and secondary students, co-developed by the Silk Road Project and the Stanford Program on International and Cross-Cultural Education (S.P.I.C.E.). The Along the Silk Road curriculum is just one of the tools used in Silk Road Connect, our arts-integrated educational approach for middle-school students, designed to inspire passion-driven learning.