background preloader


Coordinates: Teotihuacan /teɪˌoʊtiːwəˈkɑːn/,[1] also written Teotihuacán (Spanish teotiwa'kan ), was a pre-Columbian Mesoamerican city located in the Basin of Mexico, 30 miles (48 km) northeast of modern-day Mexico City, which is today known as the site of many of the most architecturally significant Mesoamerican pyramids built in the pre-Columbian Americas. Apart from the pyramids, Teotihuacan is also anthropologically significant for its complex, multi-family residential compounds, the Avenue of the Dead, and the small portion of its vibrant murals that have been exceptionally well-preserved. Additionally, Teotihuacan exported a so-called "Thin Orange" pottery style and fine obsidian tools that garnered high prestige and widespread utilization throughout Mesoamerica.[2] Name[edit] This naming convention led to much confusion in the early 20th century, as scholars debated whether Teotihuacan or Tula-Hidalgo was the Tollan described by 16th–century chronicles. History[edit] Zenith[edit] Related:

Nature (essay) Emerson by Eastman Johnson, 1846 "Nature" is an essay written by Ralph Waldo Emerson, and published by James Munroe and Company in 1836. It is in this essay that the foundation of transcendentalism is put forth, a belief system that espouses a non-traditional appreciation of nature.[1] Transcendentalism suggests that divinity suffuses all nature, and speaks to the notion that we can only understand reality through studying nature.[2] A visit to the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris inspired a set of lectures delivered in Boston and subsequently the ideas leading to the publication of Nature. Within this essay, Emerson divides nature into four usages; Commodity, Beauty, Language and Discipline. Henry David Thoreau had read "Nature" as a senior at Harvard College and took it to heart. Emerson followed the success of this essay with a famous speech entitled "The American Scholar". Emerson uses spirituality as a major theme in his essay, “Nature”. Jump up ^ Liebman, Sheldon W.

Teotihuacán, la grande cité Commençons tout d’abord avec Teotihuacán qui est le site archéologique le plus grandiose et le plus connu du Mexique et qui généralement, se visite en premier, vu que il se situe à 40 km au Nord-Est de la capitale. Qu’était Teotihuacán au temps où elle fut occupée ? Cette cité fut l’une des premières villes complètes du Mexique. Au centre de la ville se dessinait une longue avenue de plus de 2 kilomètres appelée avenida de los muertos (l’avenue des morts). Au Nord se dresse la pyramide de la Lune et à l’Est domine la pyramide du Soleil qui mesure 70 m de hauteur et 220 m² au sol. Finalement cette ville fut détruite en 750 ap-JC par les peuples venus du Nord. Les Mystères de Teotihuacán Teotihuacán se traduit par « La Vallée des dieux ». Les archéologues calculent le début de la construction de ces pyramides vers l’année 200 avant JC. Les pyramides de Teotihuacán sont très différentes de celles qui sont en Egypte. Teotihuacán est consideré comme un centre énergétique.

Tenochtitlan Tenochtitlan (Classical Nahuatl: Tenochtitlan [tenotʃˈtitɬan]) was an Aztec altepetl (city-state) located on an island in Lake Texcoco, in the Valley of Mexico. Founded in 1325, it became the capital of the expanding Mexica Empire in the 15th century,[1] until captured by the Spanish in 1521. At its peak, it was the largest city in the Pre-Columbian Americas. When paired with Mexico, the name is a reference to Mexica, also known as "Aztecs" although they referred to themselves as Mexica. Geography[edit] Tenochtitlan covered an estimated 8 to 13.5 km2 (3.1 to 5.2 sq mi), situated on the western side of the shallow Lake Texcoco. It was connected to the mainland by causeways leading north, south, and west of the city. Two double aqueducts, each more than 4 km (2.5 mi) long and made of terracotta,[3] provided the city with fresh water from the springs at Chapultepec. City plan[edit] Marketplaces[edit] Public buildings[edit] The city had a great symmetry. Palaces of Moctezuma II[edit] Ruins[edit]

Tepe Sialk Coordinates: 33°58′08″N 51°24′17″E / 33.968915°N 51.404738°E / 33.968915; 51.404738 (Sialk) Tepe Sialk (Persian: تپه سیلک‎) is a large ancient archeological site (a tepe or Persian tappeh, "hill" or "mound") in a suburb of the city of Kashan, Isfahan Province, in central Iran, close to Fin Garden. History[edit] CAD rendering of Sialk ziggurat based on archeological evidence The Sialk ziggurat was built around the 3000 BC. Sialk, and the entire area around it, is thought to have first originated as a result of the pristine large water sources nearby that still run today. Archaeology[edit] Tepe Sialk was excavated for three seasons (1933, 1934, and 1937) by a team headed by Roman Ghirshman.[2][3] Studies related to the site were conducted by D.E. Artifacts from the original dig ended up mostly at the Louvre, while some can be found at the British Museum, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, and the National Museum of Iran and in the hands of private collectors. Images[edit]

Emma Goldman Emma Goldman (June 27 [O.S. June 15], 1869 – May 14, 1940) was an anarchist political activist and writer. She played a pivotal role in the development of anarchist political philosophy in North America and Europe in the first half of the 20th century. In 1917, Goldman and Berkman were sentenced to two years in jail for conspiring to "induce persons not to register" for the newly instated draft. After their release from prison, they were arrested—along with hundreds of others—and deported to Russia. Initially supportive of that country's October Revolution which brought the Bolsheviks to power, Goldman reversed her opinion in the wake of the Kronstadt rebellion and denounced the Soviet Union for its violent repression of independent voices. Biography Family Taube's second marriage was arranged by her family and, as Goldman puts it, "mismated from the first".[5] Her second husband, Abraham Goldman, invested Taube's inheritance in a business that quickly failed. Adolescence Most and Berkman

Les pyramides de Teotihuacan: pyramide de la luna / pyramide de la lune, pyramide del sol / pyramide du soleil La pyramide du soleil La pyramide du soleil (ci-dessus) mesure 65 mètres de haut. À l'époque elle aurait comporté un temple et une statue de grande taille sur son sommet, d'après certains spécialistes. Aujourd´hui le sommet est simplement une plate forme irregulière. La pyramide ne contient rien, elle est remplie de gravats. Cependant, en 1971 on découvrit une grotte sous la construction. La pyramide de la lune Elle est celle qui semble avoir le plus d'importance, de par sa position au sein du site de Teotihuacan. Légende/ Croyances populaires D'après certains, ce serait l'endroit idéal pour faire le plein d'energie cosmique.

Tang Dynasty History[edit] Establishment[edit] Administration and politics[edit] Initial reforms[edit] Taizong set out to solve internal problems within the government which had constantly plagued past dynasties. The Tang had three departments (Chinese: 省; pinyin: shěng), which were obliged to draft, review, and implement policies respectively. Tang era gilt-gold bowl with lotus and animal motifs Although the central and local governments kept an enormous number of records about land property in order to assess taxes, it became common practice in the Tang for literate and affluent people to create their own private documents and signed contracts. The center of the political power of the Tang was the capital city of Chang'an (modern Xi'an), where the emperor maintained his large palace quarters and entertained political emissaries with music, sports, acrobatic stunts, poetry, paintings, and dramatic theater performances. Imperial examinations[edit] Religion and politics[edit]

Tepoztecatl In Aztec mythology, Tepoztecatl [teposˈteːkat͡ɬ] (from tepoztli "workable metal" [teˈpost͡ɬi] and tēcatl "person" [ˈteːkat͡ɬ] ) or Tezcatzontecatl [teːskat͡sonˈteːkat͡ɬ] (from tēzcatl [teːskat͡ɬ] "mirror", tzontli "four hundred" [ˈt͡sont͡ɬi] and tēcatl "person" [ˈteːkat͡ɬ]) was the god of pulque, of drunkenness and fertility. The deity was also known by his calendrical name, Ometochtli ("two-rabbit").[1] He is a consort of Mayahuel, who is a mask-avatar of Xochiquetzal. According to Aztec myth, Tepoztecatl was one of the Centzon Totochtin,[2] the four hundred children of Mayahuel, the goddess of the maguey plant, and Patecatl, the god that discovered the fermentation process.[1] As a deity of pulque, Tepoztecatl was associated with fertility cults and Tlaloc.[1] Tepoztecatl was also associated with the wind, hence deriving an alternative name of Ehecacone, son of the wind.[1] Tepoztecatl appears in the Mendoza Codex carrying a copper axe.[1] See also[edit] Notes[edit] References[edit]

Entropy (information theory) 2 bits of entropy. A single toss of a fair coin has an entropy of one bit. A series of two fair coin tosses has an entropy of two bits. The number of fair coin tosses is its entropy in bits. This definition of "entropy" was introduced by Claude E. Entropy is a measure of unpredictability of information content. Now consider the example of a coin toss. English text has fairly low entropy. If a compression scheme is lossless—that is, you can always recover the entire original message by decompressing—then a compressed message has the same quantity of information as the original, but communicated in fewer characters. Shannon's theorem also implies that no lossless compression scheme can compress all messages. Named after Boltzmann's H-theorem, Shannon defined the entropy H (Greek letter Eta) of a discrete random variable X with possible values {x1, ..., xn} and probability mass function P(X) as: When taken from a finite sample, the entropy can explicitly be written as . , with

Teotihuacan L'immense métropole religieuse de Teotihuacan se tient à 40 km au nord de Mexico, à 2300 m d'altitude. Teothihuacan est un ensemble de pyramides, d'esplanades, de voies sacrées et de palais qui couvre 5 Km2. A l'apogée, ce devait être le coeur d'une cité d'environ 30 Km2. La citadelle (n°3) est une enceinte carrée de 400 m de côté, jalonnée de plate-formes à degré. Le palais de Quetzalpapalotl (n°5) situé à l'est de la place de la Lune est un édifice destiné à l'habitation des haut-dignitaires de Teotihuacan. Toute la cité de Teotihuacan, aujourd'hui grise et noire, était jadis revêtues de vives couleurs.

Sui Dynasty The Sui dynasty (581–618 AD)[1] was a short-lived Imperial Chinese dynasty. Preceded by the Southern and Northern Dynasties, it unified China for the first time after over a century of north-south division. It was followed by the Tang dynasty. Founded by Emperor Wen of Sui, the Sui dynasty capital was Chang'an (which was renamed Daxing,581-605) and the later at Luoyang (605-614). His reign saw the reunification of Southern and Northern China and the construction of the Grand Canal. This dynasty has often been compared to the earlier Qin dynasty in tenor and in the ruthlessness of its accomplishments. History[edit] Emperor Wen and the founding of the Sui dynasty[edit] Sui's China, and Sui divisions under Yangdi (western regions not depicted). When the Northern Zhou dynasty defeated the Northern Qi dynasty in 577 CE, this was the culminating moment and ultimate advantage for the northern Chinese to face south. Emperor Yang of Sui[edit] A Sui dynasty pilgrim flask made of stoneware. Fall[edit]

Terpsichore Terpsichore, Muse of Music and ballet, an oil on canvas painting by Jean-Marc Nattier (1739). In Greek mythology, Terpsichore (/tərpˈsɪkəriː/; Τερψιχόρη) "delight in dancing" was one of the nine Muses and goddess of dance and chorus.[1] She lends her name to the word "terpsichorean" which means "of or relating to dance". She is usually depicted sitting down, holding a lyre, accompanying the ballerinas' choirs with her music. Her name comes from the Greek words τέρπω ("delight") and χoρός ("dance"). Historical references[edit] Modern references[edit] See also[edit] External links[edit] References[edit]

List of best-selling singles The artists with the most singles (including featured credits) on this list is Rihanna with nine entries, followed by Katy Perry with eight entries, Beyoncé and Elvis Presley next on the list with six entries each. Lady Gaga, Flo Rida, Britney Spears and Michael Jackson (appearing twice as lead member of The Jackson 5) each appear five times. Given the recent trend that commercial music download sites increasingly sell mostly single tracks rather than whole albums, the list is split between digital singles and physical (CD and vinyl) singles.[1] Portable audio players, which make it extremely easy to load and play songs from many different artists, are claimed to be a major factor behind this trend. In italics, singles whose listed sales are the compilation of sales in available markets instead of a worldwide sales figure. Best-selling physical singles[edit] 15 million copies or more[edit] 10–14.9 million copies[edit] 7–9.9 million copies[edit] 5–6.9 million copies[edit] Notes[edit]

Teotihuacán : « La cité où les hommes se transforment en Dieux... » Une exposition « Teotihuacán, Cité des Dieux », s’est ouverte samedi à Monterrey, la grande ville du nord du Mexique. Elle présente des pièces inédites de la capitale du plus grand empire précolombien édifiée par les Aztèques. Des trésors qui quitteront le Mexique en octobre pour être accueillis à Paris en 2009, au musée des Arts et civilisations du Quai Branly. Teotihuacán, Cité des Dieux » fait remonter à 150 ans avant notre ère, et jusqu’à l’apogée de la capitale aztèque, vers 650. En tout, 426 pièces inédites, jamais sorties des laboratoires de recherche, sont actuellement présentées au Musée national d’anthropologie et d’Histoire de Monterrey au Mexique. En octobre, l’exposition déménagera au musée des Arts et civilisations du Quai Branly. Teotihuacán, à 45 km au nord-est de Mexico, a été à son apogée une des cinq plus grandes villes du monde, avec jusqu’à 250.000 habitants.