Educational Leadership:Early Intervention at Every Age:The Perils and Promise...
Carol S. Dweck I think educators commonly hold two beliefs that do just that. Many believe that (1) praising students' intelligence builds their confidence and motivation to learn, and (2) students' inherent intelligence is the major cause of their achievement in school. Our research has shown that the first belief is false and that the second can be harmful—even for the most competent students. As a psychologist, I have studied student motivation for more than 35 years. Fixed or Malleable? Praise is intricately connected to how students view their intelligence. Other students believe that their intellectual ability is something they can develop through effort and education. More and more research in psychology and neuroscience supports the growth mind-set. Alfred Binet (1909/1973), the inventor of the IQ test, had a strong growth mind-set. The Two Faces of Effort The fixed and growth mind-sets create two different psychological worlds. The Effects of Praise Motivated to Learn Going Forward
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