Gallifreyan Mathematics Suggestion - On the Derivative Notation : gallifreyan Circular Gallifreyan - Conlang This project is completed.By all means, please contribute to the language's culture and/or history. Gallifreyan is the language used by the Time Lords from the planet Gallifrey. There are several forms of written and spoken Gallifreyan. Circular Gallifreyan evolved from Modern Linear Gallifreyan. The writting is sub-divided into: Collapsed Circular Gallifreyan A complex system of interlocking circles. Long Circular Gallifreyan Its use is similar to cursive in English and other human languages. Many of its words sound like frustrated grunts and clucks to most other species. Gallifreyans only evolved a language when it became necessary to discuss concepts which could not be adequately expressed telepathically, such as quantum physics. Phonology Edit Consonants Edit Vowels Alphabet There are no letters in Circular Gallifreyan. Time Lords do not disting consonants from vowels. This is the alphabet taught to the children of Gallifrey when they enter the Academy: Sentence Structure Words Order Questions
Rikchik Language The rikchiks speak in what would be called sign language by humans. The rikchiks use 7 of their tentacles to speak with, putting each tentacle into a given shape and position to form a word. A sequence of words is assembled within the rikchik mind into a tree-like sentence structure. There is now an incomplete but hopefully much clearer language reference available. Words Each word consists of 4 parts: Morpheme: basic concept (4 tentacles) Aspect: "part of speech" (1 tentacle) Relation: relationship to collecting word (1 tentacle) Collector: number of previously uncollected words collected (1 tentacle) Morpheme A central, 4-tentacle symbol representing the basic concept of the word. Aspect A 1-tentacle symbol on the lower left representing the "part of speech" of the word. Relation A 1-tentacle symbol on the top representing the connection this word has to the word that will collect it. Below is a list of relations. Primary relations Agent (T does C) Instrument (something does C using T)
Roles and Relations In natural languages, roles are usually represented by nouns, such as mother, brother, author, or driver, but in predicate calculus, they are often represented by dyadic relations, such as motherOf, brotherOf, authorOf, or driverOf. This representation makes the mapping from language to logic unsystematic, since the noun woman is mapped to a type or a monadic predicate woman(x), but the noun mother is mapped to a dyadic predicate motherOf(x,y). To make the mapping more systematic, the KR ontology, which is presented in the book Knowledge Representation, introduces a primitive dyadic relation Has, which converts roles into relations. Figure 1 divides the type Actuality, which is discussed in the top-level ontology, into three subtypes, Phenomenon, Role, and Sign. Figure 1: Classification of roles In Whitehead's ontology, roles result from prehensions: one entity prehends another. Composite. Piece. Accompaniment < Object ∩ Participant; Accm(Object,Object). Example: Ronnie left with Nancy.
Notes on a Visual Shorthand for Conceptual Graphs Home | Blog | Writings | Interests | Philosophy | Sabbatical '95 | Burning Man '97 | Burning Man '99 | Burning Man '02 | PGP Key | Ex-WCG | Bevan | Auryn | Family | Arciem | Resume | Sciral | Most of the action on my site is now in my blog and my tumblelog. I invite you to visit! In his book Knowledge Representation, John F. I have been quite impressed by the expressive power of CG, but as I have studied them I have found myself wishing for a way of writing and reading them in addition to the two methods described in the proposed ANSI standard ("display form" (DF) and "linear form" (LF)). Maintain from DF Unambiguous General Amenable to algorithmic layout Improve over DF Quicker and easier to write by hand Easier to read More compact Improved language-neutrality What follows are preliminary notes on my approach to creating a visual "shorthand" for CGs. This document is not a tutorial on CGs or on the proposed shorthand. Modifications to Display Form Concepts Relations Arcs Contexts Coreferences
A Picture of Language Joe Mortis Draft is a series about the art and craft of writing. The curious art of diagramming sentences was invented 165 years ago by S.W. Clark, a schoolmaster in Homer, N.Y.  His book, published in 1847, was called “A Practical Grammar: In which Words, Phrases, and Sentences Are Classified According to Their Offices and Their Various Relations to One Another.” It may have been unwieldy, but this formidable tome was also quite revolutionary: out of the general murk of its tiny print, incessant repetitions, maze of definitions and uplifting examples emerged the profoundly innovative, dazzlingly ingenious and rather whimsical idea of analyzing sentences by turning them into pictures. Before diagramming, grammar was taught by means of its drabber older sibling, parsing. Put simply, parsing requires the student to break down a sentence into its component words, classifying each in terms of its part of speech, as well as its tense, number and function in the sentence. Mr. Mr.
Writing System This begins a tutorial on the Ouwi writing system. In the introduction we break the sections down into the parts of speech. This is not a perfect fit, as Ouwi is built more on how different people, things, events and concepts relate than on breaking those relations into neat sentence-sized chunks. Nonetheless, by the end of the introduction, you should be able to construct simple sentences. So, let's cover the basics... Basic Elements There are four fundamentally distinguishable atoms in the writing system: These atoms cannot combine arbitrarily. Each letter has a personality that should be perceptible with all the ways it is used (however obliquely). These letters are only distinguishable by the order of their atoms, so they can be rotated, flipped or bent at the joints, and they will still be the same letter. There are three ways in which these letters connect: 'Foreign' words are written in the spaces between two adjacent lines (wherever something can radiate from) or above and below and or
Just My Flawed Logic Conlang:NotSure - Conlang Early Draft Edit This is me just playing around with language. I'm not a linguist, I'm just having some fun. The idea of this language is to find the balance between simple yet fully expressive. It takes ideas from some Asian and European languages. Quick start Edit Vowelsa :: However you want to say it, but not like the dipthing *ei*.e :: **e**lephant, p**e**t, n**e**t.i :: p**ea** or p**i**g (yes, these are different).o :: However you want to say it, but not like the dipthing *ou*.u :: p**oo** p**oo**, or m**oo**n, but shorter. Constonantsp/h :: same as in Englisht/d :: same as in Englishk/g :: **g**ets :: same as in Englishm :: same as in Englishn :: same as in Englishl :: same as in Englishw :: same as in Englishj :: **y**ellow=== Edit Constonants p/h :: replaces pt/d :: replaces tw :: replaces v, f Dipthongs ai :: **eye**, **I**ei :: h**ey**oi :: b**oy**au :: **ou**chou :: **o'**clock
Existential Graphs MS 514 by Charles Sanders Peirce with commentary by John F. Sowa Peirce wrote MS 514 in 1909 as a tutorial on existential graphs, their rules of inference, and related topics in logic. The original manuscript of MS 514 is located at the Houghton Library, Harvard University, and this version was transcribed by Michel Balat. For other views of Peirce’s contributions to logic, see “Peirce the Logician” by Hilary Putnam or articles by Quine (1995), Dipert (1995), and Hintikka (1997). One of my earliest works was an enlargement of Boole’s idea so as to take into account ideas [p.10] of relation, — or at least of all ideas of existential relation. George Boole (1847, 1854) applied his algebra to propositions, sets, and monadic predicates. I invented several different systems of signs to deal with relations. In other writings, Peirce discussed his concept of diagrammatic reasoning, which is best illustrated by the rules of inference and model theory that he developed for existential graphs:
Begriffsschrift (Conceptual Notation) Begriffsschrift (Conceptual Notation) Preface In the preface, Frege exposes his firm conviction that the issue of truth lies on logic, but logic in itself has nothing to do with anything in particular. He makes a difference between proofs that are obtained in a pure logical manner and those obtained in an empirical manner. He describes the purpose of his small book, Conceptual Notation, in this way: I took was first to seek to reduce the concept of ordering in a series to that of logical consequence, in order then to progress to the concept of number. He criticizes the fact that he finds natural language that we all speak an obstacle for the rigorous, strict and distinct clarity that is needed to avoid any ambiguities in reasoning, and remain free from every relative subjectivity. This new notation provides the clarity and strictness of inference that is needed for this task. He mentions the fact that Leibniz also recognized the need for an appropriate symbolism for logic. Functions and Up
Diagramming Sentences Sentence Types and Clause Configurations COMPOUND SENTENCE Boggs hit the ball well, but he ran to the wrong base. Another Example:Forecasting technologies are more sophisticated and today's forecasters are better trained, but weather predictions are still not very reliable. COMPLEX SENTENCES 1. Guide to Grammar and Writing Conceptual Graph Examples Conceptual graphs are formally defined in an abstract syntax that is independent of any notation, but the formalism can be represented in several different concrete notations. This document illustrates CGs by means of examples represented in the graphical display form (DF), the formally defined conceptual graph interchange form (CGIF), and the compact, but readable linear form (LF). Every CG is represented in each of these three forms and is translated to a logically equivalent representation in predicate calculus and in the Knowledge Interchange Format (KIF) . For the formal definition of conceptual graphs and the various notations for representing them, see the draft proposed American National Standard . For examples of an English-like notation for representing logic, see the web page on controlled English . List of Examples Following are some sample sentences that are represented in each of the notations: CGs, KIF, and predicate calculus. 1. [Cat] ® (On) ® [Mat]. (On [Cat] [Mat]) 2. 3.