History of feminism Traditionally the history of feminism is divided into the three waves of feminism. The first wave of feminism dates back to the nineteenth and early parts of the twentieth century. That does not mean feminism or feminist movement did not exist prior to this period. History of feminism: Ancient feminism In fact in 6th century B.C there were women writers in Greece who even ran girl schools. History of feminism: Feminism in America, Asia & Africa On the other hand if we look at the history of feminist movement and feminism in North America then we can see some kind of organized activity from the times of "American war of independence" in the mid eighteenth century. History of feminism: The industrial revolution The industrial revolution also saw a change in the structure of society whereby more women were involved in the industry as workforce. History of feminism: Organized feminist movements History of feminism: Feminist movements in China, India & Africa 1. Article by Sanjay Nair Yours truly,
A short history of "feminist" anti-feminists Sarah Palin made quite the splash recently with her comments to the anti-abortion group the Susan B. Anthony List about conservative women reclaiming feminism, asserting that anti-choicers were "returning the woman's movement back to its original roots." Because no central authority exists to control use of the word feminist, Palin's cooption of the term caused anxious questions: Is there such thing as conservative feminism? Can you be a feminist who opposes abortion rights? Does the word feminism mean anything at all? Amanda Marcotte is a Brooklyn-based writer and DoubleX contributor. Follow The invocation of the word feminist at a meeting of anti-abortion women can be confusing, but it shouldn't be. Phase I:Plain Ol' Anti-Feminism Iconic Leader: Phyllis Schafly of the Eagle Forum Other examples: Beverly LaHaye and the Concerned Women for America, Connaught C. Basic argument: God/nature made women and men different so they could play different roles. Iconic Leader: Camille Paglia
The Roots of Individualist Feminism in 19th-Century America by Wendy McElroy The Freeman Originally published in December 1958 | EJF Home | Where To Find Help | Join the EJF | Comments? | Newsletters | Get EJF newsletter | | Civilization Book | Contents | Index | | Next — The Roots of Individualist Feminism in 19th-Century America by Wendy McElroy | | Back — Evolution Of Society by Charles E. A simple instrument teaches a profound lesson! I am a lead pencil — the ordinary wooden pencil familiar to all boys and girls and adults who can read and write. Writing is both my vocation and my avocation; that's all I do. You may wonder why I should write a genealogy. I, Pencil, simple though I appear to be, merit your wonder and awe, a claim I shall attempt to prove. Simple? Pick me up and look me over. Innumerable antecedents Top Just as you cannot trace your family tree back very far, so is it impossible for me to name and explain all my antecedents. My family tree begins with what in fact is a tree, a cedar of straight grain that grows in Northern California and Oregon.
Myths-Dreams-Symbols-Shadow Feminism In the fairy tale Rapunzel, the prince climbs Rapunzelâ€™s locks to gain access to her in the tower and, eventually, to marry her. When the sorceress discovered this, she cut off Rapunzelâ€™s locks and took her to a desolate land. The prince climbs the shorn locks, to encounter the sorceress. He jumps off the tower and the sorceressâ€™ curse comes to pass. He is blindedby thorns, never to see his wife again. In fairytales, behavior and events are timeless. We can only imagine how it was for Rapunzel after being cast out of the tower, carrying the princes child. Hence the story reminds us again that the feminine gives birth not only as a result of penentration by the masculine, but in close proximity to it. In the barren, arid, steaming wilderness, we imagine the primal, instinctual, animal aspect of Rapunzel guiding her to water, shade and the hidden treasures of lush nutrients that deserts hold if one knows where to look for them. Rapunzel and the prince both had to die.
A Man. A Woman. Just Friends? There’s a history here, and it’s a surprisingly political one. Friendship between the sexes was more or less unknown in traditional society. Men and women occupied different spheres, and women were regarded as inferior in any case. A few epistolary friendships between monastics, a few relationships in literary and court circles, but beyond that, cross-sex friendship was as unthinkable in Western society as it still is in many cultures. Then came feminism — specifically, Mary Wollstonecraft, the mother of feminism, in the late 18th century. Wollstonecraft was actually wary of platonic relationships, which could lead too easily, she thought, to mischief. In the 1890s, when feminism emerged from the drawing rooms and genteel committees to become a mass, radical movement (the term “feminism” itself was coined in 1895), friendship reappeared as a political demand. The New Woman was intelligent, well read, strong-willed, idealistic, unconventional and outspoken.
Feminine Sexual Repression The Suppression of Female Sexuality and Self-empowerment Edmond H. Wollmann San Diego State University: Women's Sexualities Spring Semester, April 18, 2001 In ancient Sumeria and Babylon, the queen was the center of the civilization. Within North America, the restrictiveness of attitudes toward eroticism varies according to one's particular religious and moral beliefs. But even within this idea there are many primary factors that inhibit sexual expression: Current Sources of Sexual Dysfunction The most frequent contributors to current sources of dysfunction are: a) anxiety, perhaps over sexual performance, and ideas that interfere with sexual arousal; b) inadequate information about sexuality that leads to ineffective sexual behavior; c) failures in communication; d) stress (Cranston-Cuebas & Barlow, 1990; Kaplan, 1974; Masters & Johnson, 1970; Morokoff & Gilliland, 1993) (1) ". . . within the lesbian community I am Black, and within the Black community I am a lesbian. Footnotes References
Images of Men in Advertising "What is a man?" This may seem like an odd question to be asking, but it's one that's answered all the time in print ads and television commercials. Ads and commercials, with their images of cowboys, successful businessmen, construction workers, sophisticates in tuxedos, muscle men and others, advertisements may seem to be flashing by casually. But they actually represent countless – if often unconscious– decisions by writers, advertisers, producers, programmers and others about what men look like, say and even think. As each ad answers the questions: "What images of men will sell my product to men? To women?" Advertising narrows the definition of what it means to be a man. According to the advertising archetypes presented, men are in charge, self-contained and often alone. In general, these concentrated views of manhood suggest the many ways in which advertising negatively affects men by narrowing the definition of what it means to be a man in American society. Author:
Gender Gap Stops Growing A report being released today says that the gender gap in college enrollments has largely leveled off, with the key exception of Latino enrollments, where men are falling further behind women. The report by the American Council on Education comes amid much talk nationally about the significance of trends that have left men making up only about 43 percent of college enrollments and new college graduates. Some colleges have gone so far as to talk about affirmative action for men, which in turn has prompted an investigation by the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. The message of the report is largely encouraging, noting that "several indicators suggest that the size of the gender gap in higher education may have stabilized" and that the number of bachelor's degrees being awarded to men is again on the rise. The Latino population is the only one where a significant enrollment gender gap appears to be growing, the report says. Jacqueline E. Deborah A.
History of Marriage in Western Civilization Marriage, as we know it in our Western civilization today, has a long history with roots in several very different ancient cultures, of which the Roman, Hebrew, and Germanic are the most important. Western marriage has further been shaped by the doctrines and policies of the medieval Christian church, the demands of the Protestant Reformation, and the social impact of the Industrial Revolution. When we look at the marriage customs of our ancestors, we discover several striking facts. On the other hand, it may surprise many modern couples to learn that in earlier times divorce was often easily granted. Marriage in Ancient Greece and Rome In ancient Greece marriage was seen as a fundamental social institution. However, while marriage was deemed important, it was usually treated as a practical matter without much romantic significance. Marriage in Ancient Israel As we can learn from the Bible, the ancient Israelites had a patriarchal family structure. Marriage in Medieval Europe
Why I loathe feminism ... and believe it will ultimately destroy the family By Erin Pizzey Updated: 11:52 GMT, 24 September 2009 ERIN PIZZEY set up the world's first refuge for battered women in 1971 - and went on to establish an international movement for victims of domestic violence. But what she has never made public before is that her own childhood was scarred by the shocking cruelty of both her parents. Here, for the first time, she tells the full harrowing story - and how it led her to a surprising, but deeply felt, conclusion ... Tortured childhood: Erin Pizzey was abused by both her mother and father Though I remember little of my earliest years, I grew up in a world of extraordinary violence. My father was ordered to Beirut by the diplomatic service, and we were left as refugees in Kokstad, South Africa. Indeed, my mother's explosive temper and abusive behaviour shaped the person I later became like no other event in my life. Thirty years later, when feminism exploded onto the scene, I was often mistaken for a supporter of the movement.
A New Masculinity (Read this article as: PDF | ePub | Mobi) Beginning about a year ago, I became obsessed with the question of whether a universal masculinity exists or not. Are the traits which we consider “manly” hardwired into us as a species? You may think this is a funny thing to obsess about. One could easily argue that a large component of the PUA experience, if not the defining component, is helping men discover and get in touch with their masculinity in order to attract and sleep with more women. Therefore within the PUA movement, it is tacitly accepted that men are supposed to behave one way and women another. But, I too, took these gender roles for granted as predestined fact. Then in late 2009, I began to travel all over the world. “You? Well shit. One of the beautiful yet horrifying aspects of traveling all over the world is that every time you step off the plane you set yourself up to have your assumptions shattered. Assortment theory can be subtle and hard to notice. Rites of Passage
Ranked: Disney Princesses From Least To Most Feminist It's hard to be liberated in a clamshell bikini. I just saw Brave, and it got me thinking about the grand tradition of Disney princesses. Brave is a Pixar movie, and its heroine, Merida, is a fairy-tale feminist. Now, I know ranking anything by perceived feminism is problematic, as your professor might put it, but go with me for the sake of discussion. 10. The early Disney films were all strange fables with beautiful scenery and women who made no choices for themselves; Sleeping Beauty is the apex of these. 9. Yeah, about all that sleeping… well, Snow White also conveniently falls asleep for much of this film, and waits to be rescued by a Charming (but otherwise featureless) prince. 8. Cinderella can't catch a break. 7. In my humble opinion, The Little Mermaid is the best Disney movie, but Ariel is shaky as a feminist icon. 6. Belle is often held up as the standard of the "feminist" Disney princess, but it's never been clear to me why she gets off easier than Ariel. 5. 4. 3. 2. 1.
The Demise Of Guys By Philip Zimbardo Think Tank: Transcript for "Has Feminism Gone Too Far?" « Back to Has Feminism Gone Too Far? main page Transcript for: Has Feminism Gone Too Far? Think Tank Transcripts: Has Feminism Gone Too Far? ANNOUNCER: 'Think Tank' has been made possible by Amgen, arecipient of the Presidential National Medal of Technology. Additional funding is provided by the John M. MR. The topic before this house: Has feminism gone too far? Joining us on this special edition of Think Tank are two authorswho have made themselves unpopular with much of the modern feministmovement. Our other guest, Christina Sommers, is an associate professor ofphilosophy at Clark University. Christina Sommers, what has feminism become? MS. MR. MS. MR. MS. MR. MS. MS. Now, I think that again what we need to do now is to get rid ofthe totalitarians, get rid of the Kremlin mentality -- MR. MS. MS. MR. MS. MR. MS. MR. MS. Now, naturally, the more sensitive young women -- MR. MS. MR. MS. MS. MR. MS. MR. MS. MS. MS. MR. MS. MS. MR. MS. MR. MS. MS. MR. MS. MS. MS. MS. MS. MS. MS. MR. MS. MR. MS.