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Organic chemistry

Organic chemistry
Structure of the organic methane molecule, the simplest hydrocarbon compound Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.[1][2] Study of structure includes using spectroscopy and other physical and chemical methods to determine the chemical composition and constitution of organic compounds and materials.[3] Study of properties includes both physical properties and chemical properties, and uses similar methods as well as methods to evaluate chemical reactivity, with the aim to understand the behavior of the organic matter in its pure form (when possible), but also in solutions, mixtures, and fabricated forms. The study of organic reactions includes both their preparation—by synthesis or by other means—as well as their subsequent reactivities, both in the laboratory and via theoretical (in silico) study. Related:  Organic chemistry

Parts of the Cell - Cells Alive! For life all cells have basic needs. Cells have diverged in their structure and function to accommodate these survival requirements. Here are some KEY TERMS to help you think, explore and search for similarities and significant differences that have become the characteristics of eukaryote (animal, plant) and prokaryotic (bacteria) cells. Examples might be searching: eukaryote prokaryote reproduction or animal plant cell energy. Reproduction / cell division Energy trapping, storage and consumption Form / shape / structure Cell specialization Compartmentalization of cell functions Communication within and beyond the cell Cell / organism survival Amanita muscaria Amanita muscaria, commonly known as the fly agaric or fly amanita, is a mushroom and psychoactive basidiomycete fungus, one of many in the genus Amanita. Native throughout the temperate and boreal regions of the Northern Hemisphere, Amanita muscaria has been unintentionally introduced to many countries in the Southern Hemisphere, generally as a symbiont with pine plantations, and is now a true cosmopolitan species. It associates with various deciduous and coniferous trees. Although it is generally considered poisonous, reports of human deaths resulting from eating the mushroom are extremely rare. Taxonomy and naming[edit] The name of the mushroom in many European languages is thought to be derived from its use as an insecticide when sprinkled in milk. Buttons Classification[edit] Amanita muscaria var. formosa sensu Thiers, southern Oregon Coast Amanita muscaria varies considerably in its morphology, and many authorities recognise several subspecies or varieties within the species.

The Basics of Organic Chemistry When you explore biology, you’ll find that many processes are constantly occurring in living organisms. The study of organic chemistry — which focuses on carbon molecules — is central to all living organisms. The ability to convert ingested fuel to usable energy is what differentiates a living organism from a dead one. What is organic chemistry? In organic chemistry, the focus is on the element carbon. One atom of carbon can combine with up to four other atoms. Carbon is key In their outer shells, carbon atoms have four electrons that can bond with other atoms. Long carbon chains = low reactivity Large molecules form when carbon atoms are joined together in a straight line or in rings. One key to knowing that a compound is less reactive is that its melting and boiling points are high. On the other hand, a compound made of an extremely long carbon chain has a boiling point of 174°C (compared to water, which has a boiling point of 100°C). Forming functional groups based on properties anemia

Cell Size and Scale Some cells are visible to the unaided eye The smallest objects that the unaided human eye can see are about 0.1 mm long. That means that under the right conditions, you might be able to see an ameoba proteus, a human egg, and a paramecium without using magnification. A magnifying glass can help you to see them more clearly, but they will still look tiny. Smaller cells are easily visible under a light microscope. To see anything smaller than 500 nm, you will need an electron microscope. Adenine The label on the nucleotide is not quite accurate. How can an X chromosome be nearly as big as the head of the sperm cell? No, this isn't a mistake. The X chromosome is shown here in a condensed state, as it would appear in a cell that's going through mitosis. A chromosome is made up of genetic material (one long piece of DNA) wrapped around structural support proteins (histones). Carbon The size of the carbon atom is based on its van der Waals radius.

Ergoline Ergoline is a chemical compound whose structural skeleton is contained in a diverse range of alkaloids. Ergoline derivatives are used clinically for the purpose of vasoconstriction (5-HT1 receptor agonists—ergotamine) and in the treatment of migraines (used with caffeine) and Parkinson's disease. Some ergoline alkaloids found in ergot fungi are implicated in the condition ergotism, which causes convulsive and gangrenous symptoms. Others include psychedelic drugs (e.g., LSD and some alkaloids in Ipomoea tricolor and related species[citation needed]). Uses[edit] In addition to the naturally occurring ergonovine (used as an oxytocic) and ergotamine (a vasoconstrictor used to control migraine), synthetic derivatives of importance are the oxytocic methergine, the anti-migraine drugs dihydroergotamine and methysergide, hydergine (a mixture of dihydroergotoxine mesylates, INN: ergoline mesylates), and bromocriptine, used for numerous purposes including treatment of Parkinson's disease.

Fat Examples of edible animal fats are lard, fish oil, butter/ghee and whale blubber. They are obtained from fats in the milk and meat, as well as from under the skin, of an animal. Examples of edible plant fats include peanut, soya bean, sunflower, sesame, coconut and olive oils, and cocoa butter. These examples of fats can be categorized into saturated fats and unsaturated fats. Chemical structure Example of a natural triglyceride with three different fatty acids. There are many different kinds of fats, but each is a variation on the same chemical structure. The properties of any specific fat molecule depend on the particular fatty acids that constitute it. Saturated and unsaturated fats A fat's constituent fatty acids may also differ in the C/H ratio. Saturated and unsaturated fats differ in their energy content and melting point. Trans fats Importance for living organisms Fat also serves as a useful buffer towards a host of diseases. Adipose tissue See also References

The Cytoskeleton Cells contain elaborate arrays of protein fibers that serve such functions as: establishing cell shape providing mechanical strength locomotion chromosome separation in mitosis and meiosisintracellular transport of organelles The cytoskeleton is made up of three kinds of protein filaments: Actin filaments (also called microfilaments) Intermediate filaments and Microtubules Actin Filaments Monomers of the protein actin polymerize to form long, thin fibers. Intermediate Filaments These cytoplasmic fibers average 10 nm in diameter (and thus are "intermediate" in size between actin filaments (8 nm) and microtubules (25 nm)(as well as of the thick filaments of skeletal muscle fibers). There are several types of intermediate filament, each constructed from one or more proteins characteristic of it. Despite their chemical diversity, intermediate filaments play similar roles in the cell: providing a supporting framework within the cell. Microtubules Microtubule motors Cilia and Flagella

Mescaline Mescaline or 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine is a naturally occurring psychedelic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class, known for its hallucinogenic effects similar to those of LSD and psilocybin. It shares strong structural similarities with the catecholamine dopamine. It occurs naturally in the peyote cactus (Lophophora williamsii),[1] the San Pedro cactus[2] (Echinopsis pachanoi) and in the Peruvian torch (Echinopsis peruviana), and as well in a number of other members of the Cactaceae plant family. It is also found in small amounts in certain members of the Fabaceae (bean) family, including Acacia berlandieri.[3] Naturally derived mescaline powder extract. History and usage[edit] Peyote has been used for at least 5700 years by Native Americans in Mexico.[4] Europeans noted use of peyote in Native American religious ceremonies upon early contact, notably by the Huichols in Mexico. Potential medical usage[edit] Notable users[edit] Biosynthesis of mescaline[edit] Synthetic Mescaline[edit]

Hydrogenation of Unsaturated Fats and Trans Fat It has long been recognized that saturated fats tend to increase the blood level of the "bad" LDL cholesterol. Monounsaturated (one double bond) and polyunsaturated fats (two or more double bonds) found primarily in vegetable oils tend to lower "bad" LDL cholesterol. An elevated LDL-C increases the risk of developing coronary heart disease. Introduction Back in the 1950s, it was recognized that vegetable oils could be substituted for animal fats such as in butter, by making a product we know as margarine. But how do you make an oil into a solid? Hydrogenation Reaction Unsaturated fatty acids may be converted to saturated fatty acids by the relatively simple hydrogenation reaction. alkene plus hydrogen yields an alkane Margarine Vegetable oils are commonly referred to as "polyunsaturated". Figure 1: Hydrogenation of a oleic fatty acid Trans Fat Trans fat has both the benefits and drawbacks of a saturated fat. Problems Contributors

Membranes Organize Cellular Complexity Membranes organize proteins and other molecules enabling the cell to run much more efficiently than if everything were floating freely. Mitochondrial membranes, for example, keep protein assembly lines together for efficient energy production. And the lysosome safely holds enzymes that would destroy essential proteins if released into the cytoplasm. Membrane-enclosed vesicles form packages for cargo so that they may quickly and efficiently reach their destinations. In this way, membranes divide the cell into specialized compartments, each carrying out a specific function inside the cell. Real life complexity inside an insulin-producing pancreas cell. Image courtesy of Dr. Phospholipids provide the framework for all membranes in the cell. When phospholipids are placed into water, they organize themselves into a structure called a bilayer. The shape and chemical nature of phospholipids drives them to organize themselves one level further.

Tabernanthe iboga Tabernanthe iboga or simply iboga is a perennial rainforest shrub and psychedelic, native to western Central Africa. Iboga stimulates the central nervous system when taken in small doses and induces visions in larger doses. In parts of Africa where the plant grows the bark of the root is chewed for various pharmacological or ritualistic purposes. Normally growing to a height of 2 m, T. iboga may eventually grow into a small tree up to 10 m tall, given the right conditions. Traditional use[edit] Bark of Tabernanthe iboga. The Iboga tree is the central pillar of the Bwiti spiritual practice in West-Central Africa, mainly Gabon, Cameroon and the Republic of the Congo, which uses the alkaloid-containing roots of the plant in a number of ceremonies. In lower doses Iboga has a stimulant effect and is used to maintain alertness while hunting.[1][2] Addiction treatment[edit] Legal status[edit] Exportation of iboga from Gabon is illegal since the passage of a 1994 cultural protection law.[5]

MARGARINE FROM OIL British Instructional Films presentation. A lorry pulling a tubular tank pulls into a depot. Written on the side of the tank is: "Towers Creameries - Mitcham." Interior of the depot - large metal containers. The oils are weighed. more A lorry pulling a tubular tank pulls into a depot. We see the mixture being stirred. Produced with the Co-operation of the National Committee for Visual Aids in Education. less DNA-RNA-Protein DNA carries the genetic information of a cell and consists of thousands of genes. Each gene serves as a recipe on how to build a protein molecule. Proteins perform important tasks for the cell functions or serve as building blocks. The DNA is situated in the nucleus, organized into chromosomes. The document has two levels, basic and advanced. Learn how to navigate in the document

Dimethyltryptamine History[edit] Another historical milestone is the discovery of DMT in plants frequently used by Amazonian natives as additive to the vine Banisteriopsis caapi to make ayahuasca decoctions. Biosynthesis[edit] Biosynthetic pathway for N,N-dimethyltryptamine This transmethylation mechanism has been repeatedly and consistently proven by radiolabeling of SAM methyl group with carbon-14 (14C-CH3)SAM).[22][20][24][25][26] Evidence in mammals[edit] In 2013, researchers first reported DMT in the pineal gland microdialysate of rodents.[28] A study published in 2014 reported the biosynthesis of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) in the human melanoma cell line SK-Mel-147 including details on its metabolism by peroxidases. [29] In a 2014 paper, a group first demonstrated the immunomodulatory potential of DMT and 5-MeO-DMT through the Sigma-1_receptor of human immune cells. INMT[edit] Endogenous DMT[edit] The first claimed detection of mammalian endogenous DMT was published in June 1965: German researchers F.