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Organic chemistry

Organic chemistry
Structure of the organic methane molecule, the simplest hydrocarbon compound Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.[1][2] Study of structure includes using spectroscopy and other physical and chemical methods to determine the chemical composition and constitution of organic compounds and materials.[3] Study of properties includes both physical properties and chemical properties, and uses similar methods as well as methods to evaluate chemical reactivity, with the aim to understand the behavior of the organic matter in its pure form (when possible), but also in solutions, mixtures, and fabricated forms. The study of organic reactions includes both their preparation—by synthesis or by other means—as well as their subsequent reactivities, both in the laboratory and via theoretical (in silico) study.

Thiamine Thiamine, also known as thiamin or vitamin B1, is a vitamin found in food, and manufactured as a dietary supplement and medication.[2][3] Food sources include whole grains, legumes, and some meats and fish.[2] Grain processing removes much of the thiamine content, so in many countries cereals and flours are enriched with thiamine.[4][2] Supplements and medications are available to treat and prevent thiamine deficiency and disorders that result from it, including beriberi and Wernicke encephalopathy.[1] Other uses include the treatment of maple syrup urine disease and Leigh syndrome.[1] They are typically taken by mouth, but may also be given by intravenous or intramuscular injection.[1][5] Medical uses[edit] Thiamine deficiency[edit] Other uses[edit] Thiamine is a treatment for some types of maple syrup urine disease and Leigh disease.[1] Adverse effects[edit] Adverse effects are generally few.[1] Allergic reactions including anaphylaxis may occur.[1] Chemistry[edit] Biosynthesis[edit]

Exercise Bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.[1] It is performed for various reasons, to aid growth and improve strength, develop muscles and the cardiovascular system, hone athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance, improve health,[2] or simply for enjoyment. Many individuals choose to exercise outdoors where they can congregate in groups, socialize, and improve well-being as well as mental health.[3][4] In terms of health benefits, the amount of recommended exercise depends upon the goal, the type of exercise, and the age of the person. Even doing a small amount of exercise is healthier than doing none.[5] Classification An aerobics exercise instructor instructs her class to keep up the pace in the United States. Physical exercises are generally grouped into three types, depending on the overall effect they have on the human body:[6]

Life extension The sale of putative anti-aging products such as nutrition, physical fitness, skin care, hormone replacements, vitamins, supplements and herbs is a lucrative global industry, with the US market generating about $50 billion of revenue each year.[2] Some medical experts state that the use of such products has not been proven to affect the aging process, and many claims of anti-aging medicine advocates have been roundly criticized by medical experts, including the American Medical Association.[2][3][4][5][6] Public opinion[edit] Life extension is a controversial topic due to fear of overpopulation and possible effects on society.[10] Religious people are no more likely to oppose life extension than the unaffiliated,[11] though some variation exists between religious denominations. A Spring 2013 Pew Research poll in the United States found that 38% of Americans would want life extension treatments, and 56% would reject it. Average and maximum lifespans[edit] Diets and supplements[edit]

Wikileaks Cables Confirm Existence of Extraterrestrial Life We're creating viewer supported news. Become a member! We’re already halfway through 2013 and the world continues to wake up to the fact that we are not alone in the universe. Just this year, we’ve seen a tremendous step forward regarding UFO disclosure. For more CE articles on the subject of UFOs and extraterrestrials, click HERE. Prior to the recent hearing on UFOs and extraterrestrial life, we’ve had explosive statements made by NASA astronauts and professors. It’s now a fact that UFOs are tracked on radar, performing maneuvers that defy our current understanding of physics. “Behind the scenes, high-ranking Air Force officers are soberly concerned about UFOs. — Former CIA Director Roscoe Hillenkoetter, 1960 The UFO/extraterrestrial phenomenon is extremely top secret; access to this type of documentation and the deeper truth behind it is almost impossible. And another: “I have said in passing there is information about UFOs in Cablegate. – Julian Assange We are living in a unique time.

Metabolism The set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms Simplified view of the cellular metabolism Metabolism (, from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical reactions in organisms. The three main purposes of metabolism are: the conversion of food to energy to run cellular processes; the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates; and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. These enzyme-catalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments. Metabolic reactions may be categorized as catabolic - the breaking down of compounds (for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate by cellular respiration); or anabolic - the building up (synthesis) of compounds (such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids). Key biochemicals[edit] Amino acids and proteins[edit] Lipids[edit] Carbohydrates[edit]

Taxonomy Science of classification A taxonomy (or taxonomical classification) is a scheme of classification, especially a hierarchical classification, in which things are organized into groups or types. Among other things, a taxonomy can be used to organize and index knowledge (stored as documents, articles, videos, etc.), such as in the form of a library classification system, or a search engine taxonomy, so that users can more easily find the information they are searching for. Many taxonomies are hierarchies (and thus, have an intrinsic tree structure), but not all are. Originally, taxonomy referred only to the categorisation of organisms or a particular categorisation of organisms. Taxonomy is different from meronomy, which deals with the categorisation of parts of a whole. Etymology[edit] The word was coined in 1813 by the Swiss botanist A. Applications[edit] Mathematically, a hierarchical taxonomy is a tree structure of classifications for a given set of objects. History[edit] Computing[edit]