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Coordinates: 16°33′17″S 68°40′24″W / 16.55472°S 68.67333°W / -16.55472; -68.67333 Tiwanaku (Spanish: ''Tiahuanaco and Tiahuanacu'') is a Pre-Columbian archaeological site in western Bolivia, South America. It is the capital of an empire that extended into present-day Peru and Chile, flourishing from AD 300 to AD 1000. Tiwanaku is recognized by Andean scholars as one of the most important civilizations prior to the Inca Empire; it was the ritual and administrative capital of a major state power for approximately five hundred years. The ruins of the ancient city state are near the south-eastern shore of Lake Titicaca in the La Paz Department, Ingavi Province, Tiwanaku Municipality, about 72 km (45 mi) west of La Paz. The site was first recorded in written history by Spanish conquistador Pedro Cieza de León. Cultural development and agriculture[edit] Artificially raised planting mounds are separated by shallow canals filled with water. Rise and fall of Tiwanaku[edit] Religion[edit]

Mount Roraima in Guyana, Venezuela and Brazil: Vacation Ideas in South America Mount Roraima is a tepui tabletop mountain that stands right on the junction of three South American countries: Guyana, Venezuela and Brazil. The borders of all these countries meet right on top of Mount Roraima. Flat, tabletop like summit of Mount Roraima is 31 kilometres square in size (huge). The vertical sides of Mount Roraima are 400 meters tall. Thanks to its super old age and prehistoric feel, Mount Roraima served as an inspiration for “The Lost World” – the 1912 novel by Sherlock Holmes author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle about interactions between dinosaurs and people. Mount Roraima in Guyana, Venezuela and Brazil, Photo: Yosemite, Wikipedia Mount Roraima Location on a Map As it was mentioned above, Mount Roraima is located right on the junction of three borders – Guyana, Venezuela and Brazil. You can see the location of Mount Roraima on an interactive, navigable map below: Mount Roraima Weather How to Get to Mount Roraima On Top of Monte Roraima, Photo: Simon Booth, Flickr

Salar de Uyuni Coordinates: Location of Salar de Uyuni Salar de Uyuni viewed from space, with Salar de Coipasa in the top left corner The Salar was formed as a result of transformations between several prehistoric lakes. The Salar serves as the major transport route across the Bolivian Altiplano and is a major breeding ground for several species of flamingos. Formation, geology and climate[edit] The salar is composed of a salt surface crust overlying brine saturated sediments. Salar de Uyuni is part of the Altiplano of Bolivia in South America. The geological history of the Salar is associated with a sequential transformation between several vast lakes. Lacustrine mud that is interbedded with salt and saturated with brine underlies the surface of Salar de Uyuni. The area has a relatively stable average temperature with a peak at 21 °C (70 °F) in November to January and a low of 13 °C (55 °F) in June. Economic influence[edit] Salt production at the Salar Name[edit] Flora and fauna[edit] Tourism[edit]

Ciudad Perdida A boulder with carved markings, believed to be a map of the area around Ciudad Perdida. View of the central area of the city. Wooden structures once stood on the stone platforms. Ciudad Perdida (Spanish for "Lost City") is the archaeological site of an ancient city in Sierra Nevada, Colombia. Ciudad Perdida was "found" in 1972, when a group of local treasure looters found a series of stone steps rising up the mountainside and followed them to an abandoned city which they named "Green Hell" or "Wide Set". Members of local tribes—the Arhuaco, the Koguis and the Asario—have stated that they visited the site regularly before it was widely discovered, but had kept quiet about it. In 2005, tourist hikes became operational again. Since 2009, non-profit organization Global Heritage Fund (GHF) has been working in Ciudad Perdida to preserve and protect the historic site against climate, vegetation, neglect, looting, and unsustainable tourism. References[edit] External links[edit] Coordinates:

Cotopaxi National Park Media related to Cotopaxi National Park at Wikimedia Commons Cotopaxi's profile by the Ministerio del Ambiente (Spanish) Inca Trail to Machu Picchu Much of the trail is of original Incan construction The Inca Trail to Machu Picchu (also known as Camino Inca or Camino Inka) consists of three overlapping trails: Mollepata, Classic, and One Day. Mollepata is the longest of the three routes with the highest mountain pass and intersects with the Classic route before crossing Warmiwañusqa ("dead woman"). Concern about overuse leading to erosion has led the Peruvian government to place a limit on the number of people who may hike this trail per season, and to sharply limit the companies that can provide guides. The trail is closed every February for cleaning. Classic trail[edit] Patallacta viewed from above Trekkers normally take four or five days to complete the "Classic Inca Trail" but a two day trek from Km 104 is also possible.[3] It starts from one of two points: 88 km (55 miles) or 82 km (51 miles) from Cusco on the Urubamba River at approximately 2,800 metres (9,200 ft) or 2,600 metres (8,500 ft) altitude, respectively.[3] Intipata

Cartagena, Colombia Cartagena or Cartagena de Indias (Spanish pronunciation: [kartaˈxena ðe ˈindjas], "Cartagena of the Indies"), is a city on the northern coast of Colombia in the Caribbean Coast Region and capital of the Bolívar Department. The port city had a population of 892,545 as of the 2005 census. It is the fifth-largest city in Colombia and the second largest in the region, after Barranquilla. The Cartagena urban area is also the fifth-largest urban area in the country. Economic activities include maritime and petrochemicals industry, as well as tourism. The city was founded on June 1, 1533, and named after Cartagena, Spain. History[edit] According to descriptions that survive, the homes of the prehistoric inhabitants of the city may have looked very similar to these Taino culture huts in Cuba Pre-Colombian era: 4000 BC – 1500 AD[edit] Archaeological investigations date the decline of the Puerto Hormiga culture and its related settlements to around 3000 BC. Colonial era: 1533–1717[edit]

Quito Quito (/ˈkito/; officiellt spanskt namn: San Francisco de Quito) är huvudstad i Ecuador. Quito ligger omkring 25 kilometer söder om ekvatorn. På grund av stadens höga läge och närheten till ekvatorn har Quito ett milt klimat året runt. Den högsta temperaturen når 21–22 °C under dagtid och den lägsta 5–10 °C på natten. Staden har två årstider; torrperioden (kallad sommar) som, med variationer, kan utsträcka sig mellan juni och november och den regnigare tiden under resten av året. Under förcolumbiansk tid var staden centrum för kungariket Quitu och huvudort för Carafolket (1000-talet). 1978 utsåg världsarvskommittén de första tolv världsarven varav Quitos koloniala centrum är ett. Historia[redigera | redigera wikitext] Förspansk tid[redigera | redigera wikitext] Quitos historia går tillbaka till det första årtusendet då nomadiska stammar flyttade till området och byggde ett kommersiellt centrum i Quitos nuvarande läge. Kolonisering[redigera | redigera wikitext]

Cusco Namnet Cusco (Quechua Qusqu) betyder navel på inkaspråket quechua. Historia[redigera | redigera wikitext] Cusco var huvudstad och kulturellt och religiöst centrum för Inkariket. Dess mest betydande byggnad var Solens tempel (Inti-Huasi) som låg på tempelområdet Coricancha. Cusco hade uppifrån sett formen av en puma, där befästningen Sacsayhuamán utgjorde huvudet. Sevärdheter[redigera | redigera wikitext] I nordvästra hörnet ligger befästningen Sacsayhuamán. Från Cusco går tåg eller buss/tåg via Ollantaytambo till Aguas Calientes och den gamla inkastaden Machu Picchu, som är Sydamerikas utan jämförelse mest besökta turistmål. Källor[redigera | redigera wikitext] Externa länkar[redigera | redigera wikitext] Wikimedia Commons har media som rör Cusco.

Sistema Sac Actun Sistema Sac Actun (from Spanish and Yucatec Maya meaning "White Cave System") is an underwater cave system situated along the Caribbean coast of the Yucatán Peninsula with passages to the north and west of the village of Tulum. Exploration started from Gran Cenote 5 kilometers (3.1 mi) west of Tulum. The whole of the explored cave system lies within the Municipality of Tulum (state of Quintana Roo). In early 2007, the underwater cave Sistema Nohoch Nah Chich was connected into and subsumed into Sac Actun making it the longest surveyed underwater cave system in the world[3] for some months. Sac Actun measures 230.8 kilometers (143.4 mi) (after connecting Sistema Aktun Hu with 34 kilometers (21 mi) in January 2011) and is second surpassed by Sistema Ox Bel Ha at 256.7 kilometers (159.5 mi). Pleistocene remains[edit] See also[edit] List of caves in Mexico References[edit] Jump up ^ John Roach (March 5, 2007).

Tayrona National Natural Park Playa Brava in Tayrona National Natural Park Cabo San Juan is one of the more popular swimming areas The Tayrona National Natural Park (Spanish: Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona) is a protected area in the Colombian northern Caribbean region and within the jurisdiction of the Department of Magdalena and 34 kilometres (21 mi) from the city of Santa Marta. The park presents a biodiversity endemic to the area of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range presenting a variety of climates (mountain climate) and geography that ranges from arid sea level to 900 meters above sea level. The park covers approximately 30 square kilometres (12 sq mi) of maritime area in the Caribbean sea and approximately 150 square kilometres (58 sq mi) of land. It was the second most visited national park in Colombia in 2009, with 211,833 visitors. Creation[edit] Geography[edit] The park has an area of 150 square kilometers. Climate[edit] Animals and plants[edit] Archaeology[edit] See also[edit] References[edit]

Pantanal Pantanal Pantanal är ett enormt vidsträckt våtmarksområde som täcker delar av Brasilien, Paraguay och Bolivia. Med en areal på uppemot 200 000 km² under regnperioden är Pantanal världens största våtmark. Iguazu Falls The name "Iguazu" comes from the Guarani or Tupi words "y" [ɨ], meaning "water", and "ûasú "[waˈsu], meaning "big".[2] Legend has it that a god planned to marry a beautiful woman named Naipí, who fled with her mortal lover Tarobá in a canoe. In rage, the god sliced the river, creating the waterfalls and condemning the lovers to an eternal fall.[2] The first European to "find" the falls was the Spanish conquistador Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca in 1541. Video Clip: Panoramic view of the falls Geography[edit] Union Fall, Iguazu's largest cataract Iguazu Falls is located where the Iguazu River tumbles over the edge of the Paraná Plateau, 23 kilometres (14 mi) upriver from the Iguazu's confluence with the Paraná River.[1] Numerous islands along the 2.7-kilometre-long (1.7 mi) edge divide the falls into numerous separate waterfalls and cataracts, varying between 60 to 82 metres (197 to 269 ft) high. Iguazú Falls from the Argentine side Distribution of the Falls between Argentina and Brazil[edit]

Training Brazilian Jiu Jitsu in Brazil In one of my previous posts, I wrote about the perfect travel strategy. The idea is doing something fulfilling and rewarding while living abroad for an extended time. The strategy is two-fold: one, nurture a skill you can apply in life, and two, create a balanced routine which is important for staying sane when living alone in a new place without a social circle. When I was living in Rio, I applied this strategy by training Brazilian Jiu Jitsu almost every day. The Gentle Art The Gentle Art Brazilian Jiu Jitsu (BJJ) is a martial art that emphasizes ground game, and uses joint locks and chokes to subdue an opponent. While you may be already familiar with Judo, an Olympic sport that showcases some beautiful throws, keep in mind that Judo and Jiu Jitsu are not the same thing. There are five belts in BJJ: white, blue, purple, brown, and black. The Legend Himself Rio Training Brazil, being the home and mecca of Brazilian Jiu Jitsu is an amazing place to train. She Would Kick Your Ass Benefits

TREKKING MT. RORAIMA: VENEZUELA'S LOST WORLD MT. RORAIMA, located on Venezuela's border with Brasil and Guiana, is the highest of the tepuis (flat-topped mountains) in the Gran Sabana, topping out at 2810 m. It was the inspiration for Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's novel "The Lost World", which has made it the most famous of all the tepuis. The ascent normally requires two and one-half days of hiking from the Pemón village of Paraitepui; the downhill return hike can be done in two days. Typical Roraima trek itinerary: The town of Santa Elena is the usual jumping off point for Roraima treks. Trek day 1: It is about two hours drive to the Pemón village of Paraitepui, where the road ends and the trek proper begins; a 4WD vehicle is needed. The first day's trek begins with a few warm-up hills with intervening wooded valleys. After three or four hours of hiking the Río Tek campsite is reached, a short distance from the stream of that name. Trek day 2: The second day's hike is only about four hours. Want to trek Roraima?