The Britannia Lexicon Have you always wanted to travel back in time to the Middle Ages but were hesitant because you didn't speak the language? Presenting the Britannia Lexicon of strange legal, feudal, chivalric, monastic, military and architectural terms to help you understand what those guys back then were really trying to say. In addition, we will soon be including lengthier entries on particular events, wars, movements and organizations, called "Sidebars of History" which will give a more in-depth view of life, politics and religion in medieval Britain. Just click a letter below to begin. Secrets of Lost Empires | Medieval Siege Welcome to the companion Web site to the NOVA program "Medieval Siege," scheduled for broadcast on January 24, 2006. In the film, which is a part of the NOVA series Secrets of Lost Empires, a team of timber framers and other specialists design, build, and fire a pair of trebuchets, a devastating engine of war popular in the Middle Ages. Here's what you'll find online: Medieval Arms Race The trebuchet was only the most frightening of the weapons early European warriors employed in siege warfare. Medieval Arms Race | NOVA Builds a Trebuchet | Life in a Castle Destroy the Castle | Resources | Transcript Medieval Siege | Pharaoh's Obelisk | Easter Island | Roman Bath | China Bridge | Site Map NOVA Online | Editor's Picks | Previous Sites | Join Us/E-mail | TV/Web Schedule About NOVA | Teachers | Site Map | Shop | Jobs | Search | To print © | created January 2000
List of Catholic Heresies and Human Traditions ADOPTED and PERPETUATED by the ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH IN THE COURSE OF 1600 YEARS (Compiled by Rev. Stephen L. Testa) “And ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free.” —Jesus in John 8:32 Notice: These dates are in many cases approximate. And doctrine to be true must conform to the Word of God. At the Reformation in the 16th Century these heresies were repudiated as having no part in the Religion of Jesus as taught in the New Testament. What will be the next invention? Note: Cardinal Newman, in his book, “The Development of the Christian Religion,” admits that ... HERESIES are those doctrines and practices which are contrary to the Bible. The real heretics therefore, are the Roman Catholics and the true orthodox are the Evangelical Christians. BRETHREN! Tract# B-305 Order From:
Medieval Demographics The Domesday Book Penned by Brandon Blackmoor, based on Medieval Demographics Made Easy by S. John Ross Here is subscribed the inquisition of lands as the barons of the king have made inquiry into them... <p>Forsooth, thy browser is truly antiquated! Land Mass The population density of , due to factors such as climate, geography, and political environment, is persons per km2 . occupies km2 ( hexes, each km across and roughly km2 in area). Population 's population is approximately persons. residents are isolated or itinerant. residents live in villages. residents live in towns. residents live in cities. residents live in big cities. The average distance between villages is km. supports Universities. supports head of livestock: fowl (e.g. chickens, geese, ducks). dairy and meat animals (e.g. cows, goats, pigs, sheep). Large population centers of any scale are the result of traffic. Castles and Fortifications The inhabitants of have been building castles for the last years. Towns and Cities
A Collection of 613 English Borough Names for Use in Locative Bynames By Lord Frederic Badger, Black Stag Herald, An Tir © Brander Roullet, 2000. Last modified 2 May 2000. Table of Contents- Introduction - A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - W - Y - Bibliography Introduction This document is a collection of English place names, specifically of Boroughs. The intended use of this document is for is a starting place for the creation of "locative" English by- names. In early English naming practices it was quite common to be known by where you were from. Some notes on this article: I scanned the index of the " English Medieval Boroughs" book in and applied OCR software to this. Yours in Service Lord Frederic Badger Black Stag Herald, An Tir List of Place Names followed by Date (note: spellings are modern, the date is the first recorded instance of the Borough being mentioned in a period text. (note: spellings are modern, the date is the first recorded instance of the Burough being mentioned in a period text.
Life In The 17th Century During the 17th century the population of England and Wales grew steadily. It was about 4 million in 1600 and it grew to about 5 1/2 million by 1700. During the 17th century England became steadily richer. Trade and commerce grew and grew. During the 1600s the status of merchants improved. At the top of English society were the nobility. For the upper class and the middle class life grew more comfortable but for the poor life changed little At the end of the 17th century a writer estimated that half the population could afford to eat meat every day. By an act of 1601 overseers of the poor were appointed by each parish. On a more cheerful note in the 17th century in many towns wealthy people left money in their wills to provide almshouses where the poor could live. A history of English society In 1600 Westminster was separate from London. 17th century towns were dirty and unsanitary. However there were some improvements in London. During the 17th century towns grew much larger. Home
ORB: The Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies Life In The 18th century In the late 18th century life the industrial revolution began to transform life in Britain. Until then most people lived in the countryside and made their living from farming. By the mid 19th century most people in Britain lived in towns and made their living from mining or manufacturing industries. From 1712 a man named Thomas Newcomen (1663-1729) made primitive steam engines for pumping water from mines. Meanwhile during the 1700s Britain built up a great overseas empire. In 1707 the Act of Union was passed. Owning land was the main form of wealth in the 18th century. However other middle class people such as merchants and professional men became richer and more numerous, especially in the towns. Below them were the great mass of the population, craftsmen and laborers. In the early 18th century England suffered from gin drinking. At the end of the 1700s a group of Evangelical Christians called the Clapham Sect were formed. The history of English society Women in the 18th Century Home
Religious Orders in Medieval Britain Monastic Orders Benedictines - founded by St. Benedict in 529 AD. The largest order, the Benedictines were noted for their learning. The four vows of these monks were to obedience,chastity, poverty, and manual labour for 7 hours each day. St. To Visit: Glastonbury Abbey, Ramsey Abbey Gatehouse, St Augustine's Abbey Scotland: Dunfermline Abbey, Iona Abbey, Kilwinning Abbey Carthusians - the Carthuisians lived lives of isolation and silence, spending their days in their own individual cells. To Visit: Mount Grace Priory Cistercians - Begun in France under the influence of St.Bernard of Clairvaux, the order chose isolated rural locations to build their monasteries, particularly in Wales and in the north, where they reclaimed land laid waste by William the Conqueror. One unanticipated result of this work ethic was that several monasteries, such as Fountains (Yorkshire), became very rich, and owned large parcels of land. To Visit: Crossraguel Abbey (Scotland) Military Orders Knights of St.
Women in the 17th Century In the 17th century the professions (lawyer, doctor) were closed to women. However some women had jobs. Some of them worked spinning cloth. Women were also tailoreses, milliners, dyers, shoemakers and embroiderers. However most women were housewives and they were kept very busy. In the 17th century most households in the countryside were largely self-sufficient. A farmer's wife also milked cows, fed animals and grew herbs and vegetables. The 17th century housewife was also supposed to have some knowledge of medicine and be able to treat her family's illnesses. In the 17th century poor and middle class wives were kept very busy but rich women were not idle either. In the 16th century some upper class women were highly educated. However towards the end of the 16th century girls spent less time on academic subjects and more time on skills like music and embroidery. In the 17th century most women were wives and mothers. Life in the 17th Century England in the 17th Century Home
Myths About the Middle Ages When you think of the Middle Ages, chances are you picture gallant knights sitting astride brilliant destriers galloping through a sea of plagues, ignorance, and filth. And you can hardly be blamed for that, when everything from the movies you watch to your high school history teacher (who was mainly the football coach) has told you that ... #6. Getty The Myth: They call it the Dark Ages for a reason. Getty"No, we can't cross the ocean there, don't you see that sea monster in the way?" The Reality: Aside from the fact that, as we've already explained, most people in the Middle Ages did not think the Earth was flat, the church wasn't responsible for killing science -- to the contrary, it was largely responsible for saving it. After the barbarians invaded Europe and Rome went the way of the dinosaurs, the Catholic church was the last remaining aspect of Roman culture in Western Europe. Getty"Look, the monks' scroll clearly says that all monks had 12-inch dongs, so it must be true." #5. #4.
Medieval City Careers What did people do in the Middle Ages? If you meet a random person on the street, what is his likely occupation? Or did people work at all? Of course not. In the following list, I have made a link to the online version of Webster's Dictionary, so you can find out what things are. Is there something on this page you'd like to see that isn't here? Open Questions This site gets me a fair few questions via email, many of which I can just answer. currently none! If you can answer any of these, or even have some clues, mail me. Governmental Occupations These are the people who run things. bailiff - the man who makes arrests and executions. Military Occupations Who keeps the country safe from encroaching enemies and wild monsters? Criminal Occupations Wherever there is society, there are criminals. boothaler - marauder, plunderer burglar - one who breaks into, and steals things from, other people's houses. Religious Occupations Priests are relatively common in role playing games. Merchants Scholars
Religion in the Middle Ages The Catholic Church The Catholic Church was the only church in Europe during the Middle Ages, and it had its own laws and large coffers. Church leaders such as bishops and archbishops sat on the king's council and played leading roles in government. As the population of Europe expanded in the twelfth century, the churches that had been built in the Roman style with round-arched roofs became too small. Monks and Nuns Monasteries in the Middle Ages were based on the rules set down by St. Monks went to the monastery church eight times a day in a routine of worship that involved singing, chanting, and reciting prayers from the divine offices and from the service for Mass. Pilgrimages Pilgrimages were an important part of religious life in the Middle Ages. The major Cathedral Centres of the Middle Ages Beauvais The cathedral at Beauvais (St. This, a building of immense proportions, was begun in 1247, and the choir was completed in 1272. The current nave was begun in 1373.