Next-generation network Description According to ITU-T, the definition is: From a practical perspective, NGN involves three main architectural changes that need to be looked at separately: In the core network, NGN implies a consolidation of several (dedicated or overlay) transport networks each historically built for a different service into one core transport network (often based on IP and Ethernet). In an NGN, there is a more defined separation between the transport (connectivity) portion of the network and the services that run on top of that transport. This means that whenever a provider wants to enable a new service, they can do so by defining it directly at the service layer without considering the transport layer – i.e. services are independent of transport details. Underlying technology components Next-generation networks are based on Internet technologies including Internet Protocol (IP) and multiprotocol label switching (MPLS). One may quite often find the term Gatekeeper in NGN literature.
rsync For secure transfer, rsync can use SSH to encrypt data during the transfer using the "-e ssh" option. From the man page: "For remote transfers, a modern rsync uses ssh for its communications, but it may have been configured to use a different remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh." Released under the GNU General Public License version 3, rsync is free software and is widely used. History Andrew Tridgell and Paul Mackerras wrote the original rsync. rsync was first announced on 19 June 1996 and the first release of major version 3 was issued on 1 March 2008. Uses rsync originated as a replacement for rcp and scp. Generic syntax: rsync [OPTION] … SRC [SRC] … [USER@]HOST:DEST rsync [OPTION] … [USER@]HOST:SRC [DEST] ...where SRC is the file or directory (or a list of multiple files and directories) to copy from, and DEST represents the file or directory to copy to. Examples A command line to mirror FreeBSD might look like: Algorithm Variations
MPLS :: Frequently Asked Questions What is MPLS VPN ? MPLS stands for "Multi-Protocol Label Switching" packet-switching VPN technology. After MPLS VPN is used, incoming data packets are assigned a "label" by a "label edge router (LER)". What is MPLS-based IP VPN? It is a IP VPN deploying MPLS technology to mark, classify, and monitor IP packets. a. MPLS stands for "Multiprotocol Label Switching". What is the fault Escalation Mechanism for MPLS VPN ? BSNL having a pro-active fault escalation mechanism .MPLS Network Operation Centre(NOC) is monitor the circuit round the clock 24 X 7. What security performance is provided by MPLS IP VPN service? With MPLS packet labeling method, which is similar to the processing of labels used in Frame Relay and ATM, security level of MPLS IP VPN service is compatible with ATM or FR security level. What is difference between IP Routing and MPLS VPN Routing ? b. d. Most MPLS standards are currently in the "Internet Draft" phase, though several have now moved into the RFC-STD phase. b. a. c.
Telecommunications network Example of how nodes may be interconnected with links to form a telecommunications network. This example is tree-like but many networks have loops. Each terminal in the network usually has a unique address so messages or connections can be routed to the correct recipients. The collection of addresses in the network is called the address space. Examples of telecommunications networks are: Messages and protocols Messages are generated by a sending terminal, then pass through the network of links and nodes until they arrive at the destination terminal. Components All telecommunication networks are made up of five basic components that are present in each network environment regardless of type or use. Early networks were built without computers, but late in the 20th century their switching centers were computerized or the networks replaced with computer networks. Network structure Example: the TCP/IP data network The area of the network size is between LANs and WANs.
IOMMU In computing, an input/output memory management unit (IOMMU) is a memory management unit (MMU) that connects a direct memory access-capable (DMA-capable) I/O bus to the main memory. Like a traditional MMU, which translates CPU-visible virtual addresses to physical addresses, the IOMMU maps device-visible virtual addresses (also called device addresses or I/O addresses in this context) to physical addresses. Some units also provide memory protection from faulty or malicious devices. An example IOMMU is the graphics address remapping table (GART) used by AGP and PCI Express graphics cards. Advantages The advantages of having an IOMMU, compared to direct physical addressing of the memory, include: Large regions of memory can be allocated without the need to be contiguous in physical memory — the IOMMU maps contiguous virtual addresses to the underlying fragmented physical addresses. Disadvantages Virtualization Published specifications See also References
MPLS - The Internet Protocol Journal - Volume 4, Number 3 Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a promising effort to provide the kind of traffic management and connection-oriented Quality of Service (QoS) support found in Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks, to speed up the IP packet-forwarding process, and to retain the flexibility of an IP-based networking approach. The roots of MPLS go back to numerous efforts in the mid-1990s to combine IP and ATM technologies. The first such effort to reach the marketplace was IP switching, developed by Ipsilon. To compete with this offering, numerous other companies announced their own products, notably Cisco Systems (Tag Switching), IBM (aggregate routebased IP switching), and Cascade (IP Navigator). In response to these proprietary initiatives, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) set up the MPLS working group in 1997 to develop a common, standardized approach. The working group issued its first set of Proposed Standards in 2001. Nevertheless, MPLS has a strong role to play.
Beam tilt Beam tilt is used in radio to aim the main lobe of the vertical plane radiation pattern of an antenna below (or above) the horizontal plane. The simplest way is mechanical beam tilt, where the antenna is physically mounted in such a manner as to lower the angle of the signal on one side. However, this also raises it on the other side, making it useful in only very limited situations. Horizontal and vertical radiation patterns, the latter with a pronounced downward beam tilt With electrical tilting, front and back lobes tilt in same direction : for example, an electrical downtilt will make both front lobe and back lobe tilt down. A vertical antenna being less visible than a mechanically tilted one, the use of purely electrical tilt with no mechanical tilt is an attractive choice for aesthetic reasons which are very important for operators seeking acceptance of integrated antennas in visible locations.
Silicon photonics Silicon photonics is the study and application of photonic systems which use silicon as an optical medium. The silicon is usually patterned with sub-micrometre precision, into microphotonic components. These operate in the infrared, most commonly at the 1.55 micrometre wavelength used by most fiber optic telecommunication systems. The silicon typically lies on top of a layer of silica in what (by analogy with a similar construction in microelectronics) is known as silicon on insulator (SOI). Applications Optical interconnects Progress in computer technology (and the continuation of Moore's Law) is becoming increasingly dependent on faster data transfer between and within microchips. Optical interconnects may provide a way forward, and silicon photonics may prove particularly useful, once integrated on the standard silicon chips. In 2006 Former Intel senior vice president Pat Gelsinger stated that, "Today, optics is a niche technology.
WiMAX WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a wireless communications standard designed to provide 30 to 40 megabit-per-second data rates, with the 2011 update providing up to 1 Gbit/s for fixed stations. The name "WiMAX" was created by the WiMAX Forum, which was formed in June 2001 to promote conformity and interoperability of the standard. The forum describes WiMAX as "a standards-based technology enabling the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access as an alternative to cable and DSL". Terminology WiMAX refers to interoperable implementations of the IEEE 802.16 family of wireless-networks standards ratified by the WiMAX Forum. The original IEEE 802.16 standard (now called "Fixed WiMAX") was published in 2001. Mobile WiMAX (originally based on 802.16e-2005) is the revision that was deployed in many countries, and basis of future revisions such as 802.16m-2011. Uses Internet access Middle-mile backhaul to fibre networks Deployment
Microservers Powered by Intel 1. Software and workloads used in performance tests may have been optimized for performance only on Intel microprocessors. Performance tests, such as SYSmark and MobileMark, are measured using specific computer systems, components, software, operations, and functions. Any change to any of those factors may cause the results to vary. You should consult other information and performance tests to assist you in fully evaluating your contemplated purchases, including the performance of that product when combined with other products. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.
Your Daily Media Scalable Streaming Adaptive Streaming has a good potential to replace widely used progressive download. Adaptive streaming can dynamically adjust the video bit-rate to the varying available bandwidth and prevent prefetching too much future video data when the extra bandwidth is available but the data are eventually left unused. For adaptive streaming, video servers need to maintain multiple copies of the same video with different bit-rates for different clients and clients with different kinds of connectivity, which requires additional server storage and reduces cache hit ratio. Recently, Scalable Video Coding (H.264/SVC) is considered to be able to save server storage and increase hit ratio using the existing web cache infrastructure (click here to see how much storage can be saved). However, a rate adaptation algorithm still needs to be carefully designed for streaming scalable video. In this project, we design and implement a framework for Adaptive Scalable Video (H.264/SVC) Streaming over HTTP.  S.
Wireless local loop Wireless local loop (WLL), is a term for the use of a wireless communications link as the "last mile / first mile" connection for delivering plain old telephone service (POTS) or Internet access (marketed under the term "broadband") to telecommunications customers. Various types of WLL systems and technologies exist. Other terms for this type of access include Broadband Wireless Access (BWA), Radio In The Loop (RITL), Fixed-Radio Access (FRA), Fixed Wireless Access (FWA) and Metro Wireless (MW). Definition of Fixed Wireless Service Fixed Wireless Terminal (FWT) units differ from conventional mobile terminal units operating within cellular networks – such as GSM – in that a fixed wireless terminal or desk phone will be limited to an almost permanent location with almost no roaming abilities. WLL and FWT are generic terms for radio based telecommunications technologies and the respective devices which can be implemented using a number of different wireless and radio technologies.