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Multiprotocol Label Switching

Multiprotocol Label Switching
Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a mechanism in high-performance telecommunications networks that directs data from one network node to the next based on short path labels rather than long network addresses, avoiding complex lookups in a routing table. The labels identify virtual links (paths) between distant nodes rather than endpoints. MPLS can encapsulate packets of various network protocols. MPLS supports a range of access technologies, including T1/E1, ATM, Frame Relay, and DSL. Introduction[edit] MPLS is a scalable, protocol-independent transport. In particular, MPLS dispenses with the cell-switching and signaling-protocol baggage of ATM. At the same time, MPLS attempts to preserve the traffic engineering and out-of-band control that made Frame Relay and ATM attractive for deploying large-scale networks. History[edit] MPLS operation[edit] A 20-bit label value. These MPLS-labeled packets are switched after a label lookup/switch instead of a lookup into the IP table. Related:  Concepts

rsync For secure transfer, rsync can use SSH to encrypt data during the transfer using the "-e ssh" option. From the man page: "For remote transfers, a modern rsync uses ssh for its communications, but it may have been configured to use a different remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh." Released under the GNU General Public License version 3, rsync is free software and is widely used.[6][7][8][9] History[edit] Andrew Tridgell and Paul Mackerras wrote the original rsync. rsync was first announced on 19 June 1996[1] and the first release of major version 3 was issued on 1 March 2008.[11] Uses[edit] rsync originated as a replacement for rcp and scp. Generic syntax: rsync [OPTION] … SRC [SRC] … [USER@]HOST:DEST rsync [OPTION] … [USER@]HOST:SRC [DEST] ...where SRC is the file or directory (or a list of multiple files and directories) to copy from, and DEST represents the file or directory to copy to. Examples[edit] A command line to mirror FreeBSD might look like: Algorithm[edit] Variations[edit]

MPLS :: Frequently Asked Questions What is MPLS VPN ? MPLS stands for "Multi-Protocol Label Switching" packet-switching VPN technology. After MPLS VPN is used, incoming data packets are assigned a "label" by a "label edge router (LER)". What is MPLS-based IP VPN? It is a IP VPN deploying MPLS technology to mark, classify, and monitor IP packets. a. MPLS stands for "Multiprotocol Label Switching". What is the fault Escalation Mechanism for MPLS VPN ? BSNL having a pro-active fault escalation mechanism .MPLS Network Operation Centre(NOC) is monitor the circuit round the clock 24 X 7. What security performance is provided by MPLS IP VPN service? With MPLS packet labeling method, which is similar to the processing of labels used in Frame Relay and ATM, security level of MPLS IP VPN service is compatible with ATM or FR security level. What is difference between IP Routing and MPLS VPN Routing ? b. d. Most MPLS standards are currently in the "Internet Draft" phase, though several have now moved into the RFC-STD phase. b. a. c.

IOMMU In computing, an input/output memory management unit (IOMMU) is a memory management unit (MMU) that connects a direct memory access-capable (DMA-capable) I/O bus to the main memory. Like a traditional MMU, which translates CPU-visible virtual addresses to physical addresses, the IOMMU maps device-visible virtual addresses (also called device addresses or I/O addresses in this context) to physical addresses. Some units also provide memory protection from faulty or malicious devices. An example IOMMU is the graphics address remapping table (GART) used by AGP and PCI Express graphics cards. Advantages[edit] The advantages of having an IOMMU, compared to direct physical addressing of the memory, include: Large regions of memory can be allocated without the need to be contiguous in physical memory — the IOMMU maps contiguous virtual addresses to the underlying fragmented physical addresses. Disadvantages[edit] Virtualization[edit] Published specifications[edit] See also[edit] References[edit]

MPLS - The Internet Protocol Journal - Volume 4, Number 3 Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a promising effort to provide the kind of traffic management and connection-oriented Quality of Service (QoS) support found in Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks, to speed up the IP packet-forwarding process, and to retain the flexibility of an IP-based networking approach. The roots of MPLS go back to numerous efforts in the mid-1990s to combine IP and ATM technologies. The first such effort to reach the marketplace was IP switching, developed by Ipsilon. To compete with this offering, numerous other companies announced their own products, notably Cisco Systems (Tag Switching), IBM (aggregate routebased IP switching), and Cascade (IP Navigator). In response to these proprietary initiatives, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) set up the MPLS working group in 1997 to develop a common, standardized approach. The working group issued its first set of Proposed Standards in 2001. Nevertheless, MPLS has a strong role to play.

Silicon photonics Silicon photonics is the study and application of photonic systems which use silicon as an optical medium.[1][2][3][4][5] The silicon is usually patterned with sub-micrometre precision, into microphotonic components.[4] These operate in the infrared, most commonly at the 1.55 micrometre wavelength used by most fiber optic telecommunication systems.[1] The silicon typically lies on top of a layer of silica in what (by analogy with a similar construction in microelectronics) is known as silicon on insulator (SOI).[4][5] Applications[edit] Optical interconnects[edit] Progress in computer technology (and the continuation of Moore's Law) is becoming increasingly dependent on faster data transfer between and within microchips.[13] Optical interconnects may provide a way forward, and silicon photonics may prove particularly useful, once integrated on the standard silicon chips.[1][14][15] In 2006 Former Intel senior vice president Pat Gelsinger stated that, "Today, optics is a niche technology.

Microservers Powered by Intel 1. Software and workloads used in performance tests may have been optimized for performance only on Intel microprocessors. Performance tests, such as SYSmark and MobileMark, are measured using specific computer systems, components, software, operations, and functions. Any change to any of those factors may cause the results to vary. You should consult other information and performance tests to assist you in fully evaluating your contemplated purchases, including the performance of that product when combined with other products. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

Scalable Streaming Adaptive Streaming has a good potential to replace widely used progressive download. Adaptive streaming can dynamically adjust the video bit-rate to the varying available bandwidth and prevent prefetching too much future video data when the extra bandwidth is available but the data are eventually left unused. For adaptive streaming, video servers need to maintain multiple copies of the same video with different bit-rates for different clients and clients with different kinds of connectivity, which requires additional server storage and reduces cache hit ratio. Recently, Scalable Video Coding (H.264/SVC) is considered to be able to save server storage and increase hit ratio using the existing web cache infrastructure (click here to see how much storage can be saved). However, a rate adaptation algorithm still needs to be carefully designed for streaming scalable video. In this project, we design and implement a framework for Adaptive Scalable Video (H.264/SVC) Streaming over HTTP. [1] S.

SDN SDC SDS SDDC Virtualization WebDAV Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV) is an extension of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) that allows clients to perform remote Web content authoring operations. A working group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) defined WebDAV in RFC 4918. The WebDAV working group concluded its work in March 2007, after the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG) accepted an incremental update to RFC 2518. Other extensions left unfinished at that time, such as the BIND method, have been finished by their individual authors, independent of the formal working group. Many modern operating systems provide built-in client-side support for WebDAV. History[edit] The W3C meeting decided to form an IETF working group, because the new effort would lead to extensions to HTTP, which the IETF had started to standardize. The protocol consists of a set of new methods and headers for use in HTTP. Implementations[edit] Servers[edit] For example: Clients[edit] Comparison of WebDAV software

Converged storage Converged storage[1] is a storage architecture that combines storage and compute into a single entity.[2] This can result in the development of platforms for server centric, storage centric or hybrid workloads where applications and data come together to improve application performance and delivery.[3] The combination of storage and compute differs to the traditional IT model in which computation and storage take place in separate or siloed computer equipment.[4] The traditional model can become a bottleneck as data sets gets bigger and the time to access that data gets shorter.[5] Design considerations[edit] The goal of converged storage is to bring together server and storage [6] and/or application and data to deliver services that are better optimized for target workloads.[7] This can mean server and storage converged within a common hardware platform. Common hardware platform[edit] Common software[edit] Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS)[edit] Characteristics[edit] Federation[edit]