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Multiprotocol Label Switching

Multiprotocol Label Switching
Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a mechanism in high-performance telecommunications networks that directs data from one network node to the next based on short path labels rather than long network addresses, avoiding complex lookups in a routing table. The labels identify virtual links (paths) between distant nodes rather than endpoints. MPLS can encapsulate packets of various network protocols. MPLS supports a range of access technologies, including T1/E1, ATM, Frame Relay, and DSL. Introduction[edit] MPLS is a scalable, protocol-independent transport. In particular, MPLS dispenses with the cell-switching and signaling-protocol baggage of ATM. At the same time, MPLS attempts to preserve the traffic engineering and out-of-band control that made Frame Relay and ATM attractive for deploying large-scale networks. History[edit] MPLS operation[edit] A 20-bit label value. These MPLS-labeled packets are switched after a label lookup/switch instead of a lookup into the IP table. Related:  Concepts

MPLS :: Frequently Asked Questions What is MPLS VPN ? MPLS stands for "Multi-Protocol Label Switching" packet-switching VPN technology. After MPLS VPN is used, incoming data packets are assigned a "label" by a "label edge router (LER)". What is MPLS-based IP VPN? It is a IP VPN deploying MPLS technology to mark, classify, and monitor IP packets. a. MPLS stands for "Multiprotocol Label Switching". What is the fault Escalation Mechanism for MPLS VPN ? BSNL having a pro-active fault escalation mechanism .MPLS Network Operation Centre(NOC) is monitor the circuit round the clock 24 X 7. What security performance is provided by MPLS IP VPN service? With MPLS packet labeling method, which is similar to the processing of labels used in Frame Relay and ATM, security level of MPLS IP VPN service is compatible with ATM or FR security level. What is difference between IP Routing and MPLS VPN Routing ? b. d. Most MPLS standards are currently in the "Internet Draft" phase, though several have now moved into the RFC-STD phase. b. a. c.

Next-generation network Description[edit] According to ITU-T, the definition is: From a practical perspective, NGN involves three main architectural changes that need to be looked at separately: In the core network, NGN implies a consolidation of several (dedicated or overlay) transport networks each historically built for a different service into one core transport network (often based on IP and Ethernet). In an NGN, there is a more defined separation between the transport (connectivity) portion of the network and the services that run on top of that transport. This means that whenever a provider wants to enable a new service, they can do so by defining it directly at the service layer without considering the transport layer – i.e. services are independent of transport details. Underlying technology components[edit] Next-generation networks are based on Internet technologies including Internet Protocol (IP) and multiprotocol label switching (MPLS). One may quite often find the term Gatekeeper in NGN literature.

rsync For secure transfer, rsync can use SSH to encrypt data during the transfer using the "-e ssh" option. From the man page: "For remote transfers, a modern rsync uses ssh for its communications, but it may have been configured to use a different remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh." Released under the GNU General Public License version 3, rsync is free software and is widely used.[6][7][8][9] History[edit] Andrew Tridgell and Paul Mackerras wrote the original rsync. rsync was first announced on 19 June 1996[1] and the first release of major version 3 was issued on 1 March 2008.[11] Uses[edit] rsync originated as a replacement for rcp and scp. Generic syntax: rsync [OPTION] … SRC [SRC] … [USER@]HOST:DEST rsync [OPTION] … [USER@]HOST:SRC [DEST] ...where SRC is the file or directory (or a list of multiple files and directories) to copy from, and DEST represents the file or directory to copy to. Examples[edit] A command line to mirror FreeBSD might look like: Algorithm[edit] Variations[edit]

MPLS - The Internet Protocol Journal - Volume 4, Number 3 Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a promising effort to provide the kind of traffic management and connection-oriented Quality of Service (QoS) support found in Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks, to speed up the IP packet-forwarding process, and to retain the flexibility of an IP-based networking approach. The roots of MPLS go back to numerous efforts in the mid-1990s to combine IP and ATM technologies. The first such effort to reach the marketplace was IP switching, developed by Ipsilon. To compete with this offering, numerous other companies announced their own products, notably Cisco Systems (Tag Switching), IBM (aggregate routebased IP switching), and Cascade (IP Navigator). In response to these proprietary initiatives, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) set up the MPLS working group in 1997 to develop a common, standardized approach. The working group issued its first set of Proposed Standards in 2001. Nevertheless, MPLS has a strong role to play.

Multiprotocol Label Switching Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a mechanism in high-performance telecommunications networks that directs data from one network node to the next based on short path labels rather than long network addresses, avoiding complex lookups in a routing table. The labels identify virtual links (paths) between distant nodes rather than endpoints. MPLS can encapsulate packets of various network protocols. MPLS supports a range of access technologies, including T1/E1, ATM, Frame Relay, and DSL. Introduction[edit] MPLS is a scalable, protocol-independent transport. In particular, MPLS dispenses with the cell-switching and signaling-protocol baggage of ATM. At the same time, MPLS attempts to preserve the traffic engineering and out-of-band control that made Frame Relay and ATM attractive for deploying large-scale networks. History[edit] MPLS operation[edit] A 20-bit label value. These MPLS-labeled packets are switched after a label lookup/switch instead of a lookup into the IP table.

Telecommunications network Example of how nodes may be interconnected with links to form a telecommunications network. This example is tree-like but many networks have loops. Each terminal in the network usually has a unique address so messages or connections can be routed to the correct recipients. The collection of addresses in the network is called the address space. Examples of telecommunications networks are: Messages and protocols[edit] Messages are generated by a sending terminal, then pass through the network of links and nodes until they arrive at the destination terminal. Components[edit] All telecommunication networks are made up of five basic components that are present in each network environment regardless of type or use. Early networks were built without computers, but late in the 20th century their switching centers were computerized or the networks replaced with computer networks. Network structure[edit] Example: the TCP/IP data network[edit] The area of the network size is between LANs and WANs.

IOMMU In computing, an input/output memory management unit (IOMMU) is a memory management unit (MMU) that connects a direct memory access-capable (DMA-capable) I/O bus to the main memory. Like a traditional MMU, which translates CPU-visible virtual addresses to physical addresses, the IOMMU maps device-visible virtual addresses (also called device addresses or I/O addresses in this context) to physical addresses. Some units also provide memory protection from faulty or malicious devices. An example IOMMU is the graphics address remapping table (GART) used by AGP and PCI Express graphics cards. Advantages[edit] The advantages of having an IOMMU, compared to direct physical addressing of the memory, include: Large regions of memory can be allocated without the need to be contiguous in physical memory — the IOMMU maps contiguous virtual addresses to the underlying fragmented physical addresses. Disadvantages[edit] Virtualization[edit] Published specifications[edit] See also[edit] References[edit]

Catalyst 6500 Release 12.2SX Software Configuration Guide - STP and MST  [Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Switches Table Of Contents Configuring STP and MST Understanding STP STP Overview Understanding the Bridge ID Bridge Priority Value Extended System ID STP MAC Address Allocation Understanding Bridge Protocol Data Units Election of the Root Bridge STP Protocol Timers Creating the Spanning Tree Topology STP Port States STP Port State Overview Blocking State Listening State Learning State Forwarding State Disabled State STP and IEEE 802.1Q Trunks Understanding IEEE 802.1w RSTP Port Roles and the Active Topology Rapid Convergence Synchronization of Port Roles Bridge Protocol Data Unit Format and Processing BPDU Format and Processing Overview Processing Superior BPDU Information Processing Inferior BPDU Information Topology Changes Rapid-PVST Understanding MST MST Overview MST Regions IST, CIST, and CST IST, CIST, and CST Overview Spanning Tree Operation Within an MST Region Spanning Tree Operations Between MST Regions IEEE 802.1s Terminology Hop Count Boundary Ports Standard-Compliant MST Implementation Changes in Port-Role Naming Bit 16 No

Beam tilt Beam tilt is used in radio to aim the main lobe of the vertical plane radiation pattern of an antenna below (or above) the horizontal plane. The simplest way is mechanical beam tilt, where the antenna is physically mounted in such a manner as to lower the angle of the signal on one side. However, this also raises it on the other side, making it useful in only very limited situations. Horizontal and vertical radiation patterns, the latter with a pronounced downward beam tilt With electrical tilting, front and back lobes tilt in same direction : for example, an electrical downtilt will make both front lobe and back lobe tilt down. A vertical antenna being less visible than a mechanically tilted one, the use of purely electrical tilt with no mechanical tilt is an attractive choice for aesthetic reasons which are very important for operators seeking acceptance of integrated antennas in visible locations.

Silicon photonics Silicon photonics is the study and application of photonic systems which use silicon as an optical medium.[1][2][3][4][5] The silicon is usually patterned with sub-micrometre precision, into microphotonic components.[4] These operate in the infrared, most commonly at the 1.55 micrometre wavelength used by most fiber optic telecommunication systems.[1] The silicon typically lies on top of a layer of silica in what (by analogy with a similar construction in microelectronics) is known as silicon on insulator (SOI).[4][5] Applications[edit] Optical interconnects[edit] Progress in computer technology (and the continuation of Moore's Law) is becoming increasingly dependent on faster data transfer between and within microchips.[13] Optical interconnects may provide a way forward, and silicon photonics may prove particularly useful, once integrated on the standard silicon chips.[1][14][15] In 2006 Former Intel senior vice president Pat Gelsinger stated that, "Today, optics is a niche technology.

Catalyst 6500 Release 12.2SX Software Configuration Guide - STP and MST  [Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Switches Table Of Contents Configuring STP and MST Understanding STP STP Overview Understanding the Bridge ID Bridge Priority Value Extended System ID STP MAC Address Allocation Understanding Bridge Protocol Data Units Election of the Root Bridge STP Protocol Timers Creating the Spanning Tree Topology STP Port States STP Port State Overview Blocking State Listening State Learning State Forwarding State Disabled State STP and IEEE 802.1Q Trunks Understanding IEEE 802.1w RSTP Port Roles and the Active Topology Rapid Convergence Synchronization of Port Roles Bridge Protocol Data Unit Format and Processing BPDU Format and Processing Overview Processing Superior BPDU Information Processing Inferior BPDU Information Topology Changes Rapid-PVST Understanding MST MST Overview MST Regions IST, CIST, and CST IST, CIST, and CST Overview Spanning Tree Operation Within an MST Region Spanning Tree Operations Between MST Regions IEEE 802.1s Terminology Hop Count Boundary Ports Standard-Compliant MST Implementation Changes in Port-Role Naming Bit 16 No

WiMAX WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a wireless communications standard designed to provide 30 to 40 megabit-per-second data rates,[1] with the 2011 update providing up to 1 Gbit/s[1] for fixed stations. The name "WiMAX" was created by the WiMAX Forum, which was formed in June 2001 to promote conformity and interoperability of the standard. The forum describes WiMAX as "a standards-based technology enabling the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access as an alternative to cable and DSL".[2] Terminology[edit] WiMAX refers to interoperable implementations of the IEEE 802.16 family of wireless-networks standards ratified by the WiMAX Forum. The original IEEE 802.16 standard (now called "Fixed WiMAX") was published in 2001. Mobile WiMAX (originally based on 802.16e-2005) is the revision that was deployed in many countries, and basis of future revisions such as 802.16m-2011. Uses[edit] Internet access[edit] Middle-mile backhaul to fibre networks[edit] Deployment[edit]

Microservers Powered by Intel 1. Software and workloads used in performance tests may have been optimized for performance only on Intel microprocessors. Performance tests, such as SYSmark and MobileMark, are measured using specific computer systems, components, software, operations, and functions. Any change to any of those factors may cause the results to vary. You should consult other information and performance tests to assist you in fully evaluating your contemplated purchases, including the performance of that product when combined with other products. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

Catalyst 6500 Release 12.2SX Software Configuration Guide - STP and MST  [Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Switches A disabled Layer 2 LAN port performs as follows:

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