Present Perfect Tense - Structure The structure of the present perfect tense is: Here are some examples of the present perfect tense: Contractions with the present perfect tense When we use the present perfect tense in speaking, we usually contract the subject and auxiliary verb. We also sometimes do this when we write. Here are some examples: I've finished my work.John's seen ET.They've gone home. He's or he's??? Present Perfect Use » Unfortunately A pronoun is a word used to stand for (or take the place of) a noun. A pronoun should refer clearly to one, clear, unmistakable noun coming before the pronoun. This noun is called the pronoun’s antecedent. Unfortunately, it is very easy to create a sentence that uses a pronoun WITHOUT a clear, unmistakable noun antecedent. Example: The pronoun itdoes not have a clear noun antecedent. As a result, the reader cannot know for sure whether Mabel sold the disk or the cabinet. Such errors, called FAULTY or VAGUE PRONOUN REFERENCE, can confuse readers and obscure the intended meaning. There are three major pronoun reference errors. Error #1: TOO MANY ANTECEDENTS A pronoun should have only one antecedent. Look at this sentence: Anyone who reads this sentence would not know which item was to be fixed. Does it refer to the radio or the car? In the above example, faulty pronoun reference occurs because the pronoun it has two possible noun antecedents. To fix the sentence, substitute a noun for the pronoun.
Spelling Compound Words Related column: “Compound words cause considerable confusion” Have you ever wondered whether compound words such as “monthlong” should be spelled as one word, as a hyphenated phrase, or as two separate words? I spent some time looking up the commonly used compounds listed in The Associated Press Stylebook and Libel Manual and checking the recommended spellings there against the recommended spellings in William Sabin’s The Gregg Reference Manual and The American Heritage Dictionary. Here’s what I found. Solid compounds (whether used as adjectives, adverbs, or nouns): Hyphenated compounds (when used as adjectives, adverbs, or nouns): Spaced words: Spaced words as noun phrases or adverbial phrases; hyphenated compounds as compound adjectives (or unit modifiers) preceding nouns: Solid compounds as indefinite pronouns; two words to single out a member of a group: Spaced words as verbs with prepositions used as adverbs; solid compounds as nouns or adjectives: grownup (also grown-up), grown-up
Past Participles present, past, past participle be, was or were, been sing, sang, sung drink, drank, drunk do, did, done go, went, gone make, made, made find, found, found talk, talked, talked eat, ate, eaten swim, swam, swum read, read, read write, wrote, written give, gave, given Now let's practice the past participle by using the present perfect tense. It shows something that started in the past, but continues until now. has/have (not) + past participle Examples: She has done her homework. They have gone for a walk. Julia hasn't eaten anything today. The men haven't talked about the women. Check Your Understanding Without looking back, try to fill in the blanks using the past participle. She (eat) all of the cookies. Maxwell (write) his essay. Thomas (find) a new friend. George and Kerry (go) to the mountains. The president (not/ make) his speech yet. Carolyn (not/ talk) to Richard. The teachers (give) us the homework. The cowboys (drink) all the beer. The swimmers (swim) across the lake. Bonus: (Do you know these?)
Grammar - Parts of Speech - Conjunctions Free English Lessons from the ESL Resource Center Parts of Speech Chapter 8 - Conjunctions A conjunction is a word that connects other words or groups of words. In the sentence Bob and Dan are friends the conjunction and connects two nouns and in the sentence He will drive or fly, the conjunction or connects two verbs. Coordinating conjunctions are conjunctions which connect two equal parts of a sentence. and is used to join or add words together in the sentence They ate and drank. or is used to show choice or possibilities as in the sentence He will be here on Monday or Tuesday. but is used to show opposite or conflicting ideas as in the sentence She is small but strong. so is used to show result as in the sentence I was tired so I went to sleep. Subordinating conjunctions connect two parts of a sentence that are not equal and will be discussed more in another class. after before unless although if until as since when because than while Pop Quiz for Chapter 8
Writer's Resource Lab » Parts of Speech Download version Overview: The different parts of speech in English represent the classifications for words in the language. Nouns A noun is person, place, or thing (often the subjects and objects in sentences). The Writer’s Resource Lab regularly offers individualized writing instruction. Nouns are classified in several different ways. Verbs A verb is an action performed or a state of being. The Writer’s Resource Lab regularly offers individualized writing instruction. Adverb An adverb is a word that modifies a verb or sometimes adjectives and other adverbs. The Writer’s Resource Lab regularly offers individualized writing instruction. Adjectives Adjectives are words that modify (describe) nouns or pronouns. Attributive adjectives appear before the noun.Predicative adjectives appear in the predicate of a sentence and are not followed by nouns; instead, they are complements of the copula be function that links predicative adjectives to nouns using helping verbs. Articles Pronouns Prepositions
When / Where: adding descriptive information for time or place Adding descriptive information for time or place When and Where - object pronouns take place (v. exp.) – occurs, happens site (n.) – location thrive (v.) – live and grow, expand, flourish Replacing the Object Noun When / Where memorable (adj.) – special in memory Preposition + Which Where can replace: When can replace: Punctuation An identifying vs. An identifying clause adds information or narrows the noun to a specific one, group or lot. A nonidentifying clause adds extra information about a noun already identified by other means, for example, by name, by shared knowledge or context. ¹An object relative pronoun cannot be omitted from (left out of) a nonidentifying clause. The Right Time or Place Change when or where to a which-clause Select the response from the list that best completes the sentence. The Ferry Building Read the Paragraphs Every day hundreds of people pass through the San Francisco Ferry Building, a place where a variety of products and services are available. resume (v.) – restart
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