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Scholars Turn Their Attention to Attention

Scholars Turn Their Attention to Attention
Imagine that driving across town, you've fallen into a reverie, meditating on lost loves or calculating your next tax payments. You're so distracted that you rear-end the car in front of you at 10 miles an hour. You probably think: Damn. My fault. My mind just wasn't there. By contrast, imagine that you drive across town in a state of mild exhilaration, multitasking on your way to a sales meeting. That illusion of competence is one of the things that worry scholars who study attention, cognition, and the classroom. "Heavy multitaskers are often extremely confident in their abilities," says Clifford I. Indeed, last summer Nass and two colleagues published a study that found that self-described multitaskers performed much worse on cognitive and memory tasks that involved distraction than did people who said they preferred to focus on single tasks. Experiments like that one have added fuel to the perpetual debate about whether laptops should be allowed in classrooms. Wait a minute.

Dunning-Kruger Effect: When Distorted Self-Perception and Illusions of Competence Trick Entertainers, Politicians, and Cities | Rowan Free Press American Idol (Photo credit: Wikipedia) Steve Mensing, Editor ♦While many have not heard of the Dunning-Kruger Effect, no doubt more than a few of us have watched those shows starting a new season of American Idol. You know the ones where people, with no talent or skill at singing, grab center stage and draw eye-rolls and muted chuckles from the judges. Surely we’ve seen wannabe politicians become baffled when someone questions them about a major issue. Even some municipalities are said to suffer from inflated self-perception. The Dunning-Kruger Effect is the extreme bias that some untalented and unskilled persons suffer from when they rate their ability at a much higher level than it actually is. Back in 1999 David Dunning and Justin Kruger tested the Dunning-Kruger Effect in a series of experiments at Cornell University. • Tend to overestimate their own level of skill. • Tend to recognize the extremity of their inadequacy. • Fail to recognize genuine skill in others. Like this:

Be lucky - it's an easy skill to learn Take the case of chance opportunities. Lucky people consistently encounter such opportunities, whereas unlucky people do not. I carried out a simple experiment to discover whether this was due to differences in their ability to spot such opportunities. I gave both lucky and unlucky people a newspaper, and asked them to look through it and tell me how many photographs were inside. On average, the unlucky people took about two minutes to count the photographs, whereas the lucky people took just seconds. For fun, I placed a second large message halfway through the newspaper: "Stop counting. Personality tests revealed that unlucky people are generally much more tense than lucky people, and research has shown that anxiety disrupts people's ability to notice the unexpected. The experiment was then repeated with a second group of people, who were offered a large financial reward for accurately watching the centre dot, creating more anxiety.

The 30 Second Habit That Can Have a Big Impact On Your Life | Robyn Scott There are no quick fixes. I know this as a social science junkie, who’s read endless books and blogs on the subject, and tried out much of the advice — mostly to no avail. So I do not entitle this post lightly. And I write it only having become convinced, after several months of experimentation, that one of the simplest pieces of advice I’ve heard is also one of the best. It is not from a bestselling book — indeed no publisher would want it: even the most eloquent management thinker would struggle to spin a whole book around it. The man in question, an eminience grise of the business world, is one of the most interesting people I have ever met. I met him first over a coffee in his apartment, to discuss the strategy for a highly political non-profit working in Africa. So when he shared some of the best advice he’d ever received, I was captivated. If you only do one thing, do this He did, and he was. I’ve been trying it out for a few months. Calling all HuffPost superfans!

What’s Lost as Handwriting Fades Does handwriting matter? Not very much, according to many educators. The Common Core standards, which have been adopted in most states, call for teaching legible writing, but only in kindergarten and first grade. But psychologists and neuroscientists say it is far too soon to declare handwriting a relic of the past. Children not only learn to read more quickly when they first learn to write by hand, but they also remain better able to generate ideas and retain information. “When we write, a unique neural circuit is automatically activated,” said Stanislas Dehaene, a psychologist at the Collège de France in Paris. “And it seems that this circuit is contributing in unique ways we didn’t realize,” he continued. A 2012 study led by Karin James, a psychologist at Indiana University, lent support to that view. The researchers found that the initial duplication process mattered a great deal. By contrast, children who typed or traced the letter or shape showed no such effect. Dr. Dr.

Bruce Mangan, PhD: Cognition, Fringe Consciousness + Convergent Phenomenology Bruce Mangan, PhD received an interdisciplinary PhD in Cognitive Science and Aesthetics from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1991. He has taught there since in various capacities, inaugurating the Scientific Approaches to Consciousness course offered jointly by the Psychology and Cognitive Science departments. Mangan is one of the founding members of the Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness. His research investigates the interface mechanisms that weld conscious and non-conscious processes into a single cognitive system. To this end he has developed a phenomenological method (Convergent Phenomenology) expressly designed to integrate first and third person evidence. William James practiced a nascent version of this approach. Bruce Mangan (2008). Journal of Consciousness Studies 15 (9):75-82. “So the central question here is phenomenological: What is the nature of the aesthetic zap? Works by Bruce | philpapers Bruce Mangan (2007). More articles by Natalie Geld »

Memories of errors foster faster learning -- ScienceDaily Using a deceptively simple set of experiments, researchers at Johns Hopkins have learned why people learn an identical or similar task faster the second, third and subsequent time around. The reason: They are aided not only by memories of how to perform the task, but also by memories of the errors made the first time. "In learning a new motor task, there appear to be two processes happening at once," says Reza Shadmehr, Ph.D., a professor in the Department of Biomedical Engineering at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. "One is the learning of the motor commands in the task, and the other is critiquing the learning, much the way a 'coach' behaves. Learning the next similar task goes faster, because the coach knows which errors are most worthy of attention. To study errors and learning, Shadmehr's team put volunteers in front of a joystick that was under a screen. The results also have given Shadmehr a new perspective on his after-work tennis hobby.

Annie Murphy Paul The Power of the Doodle: Improve Your Focus and Memory Long dismissed as a waste of time, doodling is getting new respect. Recent research in neuroscience, psychology and design shows that doodling can help people stay focused, grasp new concepts and retain information. A blank page also can serve as an extended playing field for the brain, allowing people to revise and improve on creative thoughts and ideas. Doodles are spontaneous marks that can take many forms, from abstract patterns or designs to images of objects, landscapes, people or faces. "It's a thinking tool," says Sunni Brown, an Austin, Texas, author of a new book, "The Doodle Revolution." Doodling in meetings and lectures helps ease tension for Samantha Wilson, a high-school teacher and graduate student from Southborough, Mass. "It looks like I'm spacing out when I'm doodling, but I'm actually making my thoughts come together, solidifying my own ideas," Ms. Jesse Prinz draws people's heads to help himself pay attention during lectures and speeches at conferences he attends.

Study Hacks - Decoding Patterns of Success - Cal Newport On Sam Harris and Stephen Fry’s Meditation Debate February 19th, 2019 · 44 comments A few weeks ago, on his podcast, Sam Harris interviewed the actor and comedian Stephen Fry. Early in the episode, the conversation took a long detour into the topic of mindfulness meditation. Harris, of course, is a longtime proponent of this practice. He discusses it at length in his book, Waking Up, and now offers an app to help new adherents train the skill (I’ve heard it’s good). What sparked the diversion in the first place is when, early in the conversation, Fry expressed skepticism about meditation. Harris’s response was to compare meditation to reading. Fry, who is currently using and enjoying Harris’s meditation app, conceded, and the discussion shifted toward a new direction. I wonder, however, whether Fry should have persisted. Read more » Minimalism Grows… February 8th, 2019 · 31 comments Before I do, two quick notes: On to the publicity updates: The Beginning of a Digital Revolution? Myth Confirmed

What are some brain hacks that a neuroscientist or a psychologist knows that most people don't?

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