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The Overjustification Effect

The Overjustification Effect
The Misconception: There is nothing better in the world than getting paid to do what you love. The Truth: Getting paid for doing what you already enjoy will sometimes cause your love for the task to wane because you attribute your motivation as coming from the reward, not your internal feelings. Office Space – Courtesy Twentieth Century Fox Money isn’t everything. Money can’t buy happiness. Don’t live someone else’s dream. Maxims like these often find their way into your social media; they arrive in your electronic mailbox at the ends of dense chains of forwards. Money, fame, and prestige – they dangle just outside your reach it seems, encouraging you to lean farther and farther over the edge, to study longer and longer, to work harder and harder. If only science had something concrete to say about the whole thing, you know? The researchers discovered money is indeed a major factor in day-to-day happiness. If you find that hard to believe, you aren’t alone. Time Magazine in 1971

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Daniel Kahneman on Making Smarter Decisions The bestselling author of Thinking, Fast and Slow talks about overcoming the cognitive biases and errors that can affect decision-making. You can avoid decision-making mistakes by understanding the differences between these two systems of thought. Nobel winner Daniel Kahneman says we tyically fear loss twice as much as we relish success. MIND Guest Blog, Scientific American Blog Network The views expressed are those of the author and are not necessarily those of Scientific American. We often can’t rely on ourselves to act rationally. We know this, but much social science has a bad habit of ignoring it.

Probing the Unconscious Mind SIGMUND FREUD popularized the idea of the unconscious, a sector of the mind that harbors thoughts and memories actively removed from conscious deliberation. Because this aspect of mind is, by definition, not accessible to introspection, it has proved difficult to investigate. Today the domain of the unconscious—described more generally in the realm of cognitive neuroscience as any processing that does not give rise to conscious awareness—is routinely studied in hundreds of laboratories using objective psychophysical techniques amenable to statistical analysis. Let me tell you about two experiments that reveal some of the capabilities of the unconscious mind. Both depend on “masking,” as it is called in the jargon, or hiding things from view.

Overjustification effect The overjustification effect occurs when an expected external incentive such as money or prizes decreases a person's intrinsic motivation to perform a task. According to self-perception theory, people pay more attention to the external reward for an activity than to the inherent enjoyment and satisfaction received from the activity itself. The overall effect of offering a reward for a previously unrewarded activity is a shift to extrinsic motivation and the undermining of pre-existing intrinsic motivation. Once rewards are no longer offered, interest in the activity is lost; prior intrinsic motivation does not return, and extrinsic rewards must be continuously offered as motivation to sustain the activity.[1] Experimental evidence[edit]

Survival of the ... Nicest? Check Out the Other Theory of Evolution by Eric Michael Johnson A new theory of human origins says cooperation—not competition—is instinctive. posted May 03, 2013 A century ago, industrialists like Andrew Carnegie believed that Darwin’s theories justified an economy of vicious competition and inequality. They left us with an ideological legacy that says the corporate economy, in which wealth concentrates in the hands of a few, produces the best for humanity. Do cheaters have an evolutionary advantage? Anyone who has crawled along in the left lane while other drivers raced up the right lane, which was clearly marked "lane ends, merge left," has experienced social cheating, a maddening and fascinating behavior common to many species. Although it won't help with road rage, scientists are beginning to understand cheating in simpler "model systems," such as the social amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum. At one stage in their life cycle thousands of the normally solitary Dicty converge to form a multicellular slug and then a fruiting body, consisting of a stalk holding aloft a ball of spores. It is during this cooperative act that the opportunity for cheating arises.

The Mind's Hidden Switches: Scientific American Podcast Podcast Transcription Meet Dr. Bechard Nor, pioneer transplant surgeon and one of the many achievers helping to unlock human potential at Cutter Foundation. Steve: Okay, how do you do this again? You press this button, no wait. Focusing on intrinsic reinforcers and punishers, and your dog's innate needs This page is a component of the Glossary of the Dog Science, CBC Dog Training Workshop, and an element of the Dog Science Network Go to the index of the Glossary of Terms Intrinsic Desires, Intrinsic Reinforcers, and Intrinsic Punishers When we speak of a desire as being intrinsic or innate, we mean that it is deeply bred into the genetic and physiological fabric of our being.

Illustrated English Idioms and their Meanings Having recently moved to Brazil, learning a new language and also teaching English, illustrator Roisin Hahessy got thinking about the the English language. On her website, she declares, “When I stopped to think about some English idioms and their literal meaning, I found some of them very funny and thought it would be a nice idea to pick a few of the most common idioms and illustrate them.” The images below have been reproduced with the direct permission of the illustrator These fantastic illustrations would be ideal for classroom use, when discussing idioms, and similar expressions used in the English language: You can purchase each print individually on Roisin’s website by clicking here. News Websites for Language Learners by @rbsaglam

Please, not another bias! An evolutionary take on behavioural economics Below is a transcript of my planned presentation at today’s Marketing Science Ideas Xchange. The important images from the slide pack are below, but the full set of slides is available here. Please, not another bias! Social Networks Matter: Friends Increase the Size of Your Brain New research confirms that social complexity enriches cognitive growth. Could having more Facebook friends actually make you smarter? "The Social Network" by Nathaniel Gold Let’s face it, as a species we’re obsessed with ourselves.

Maximizers and Satisfiers (satisfaction through making do) The large points first: Most happiness researchers agree that being surrounded by friends and family is one of the most crucial determinants of our well-being. Yet New York, as surprisingly neighborly a city as it is, is still predicated on a certain principle of atomization. Being married would help in this instance, obviously. But New York City’s percentage of unmarried adults is nine points higher than the national average, at 52 percent. Then there’s the question of the hedonic treadmill, such a demonic little term, so vivid, so apt.

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