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The Overjustification Effect

The Overjustification Effect
The Misconception: There is nothing better in the world than getting paid to do what you love. The Truth: Getting paid for doing what you already enjoy will sometimes cause your love for the task to wane because you attribute your motivation as coming from the reward, not your internal feelings. Office Space – Courtesy Twentieth Century Fox Money isn’t everything. Money can’t buy happiness. Don’t live someone else’s dream. Maxims like these often find their way into your social media; they arrive in your electronic mailbox at the ends of dense chains of forwards. Money, fame, and prestige – they dangle just outside your reach it seems, encouraging you to lean farther and farther over the edge, to study longer and longer, to work harder and harder. If only science had something concrete to say about the whole thing, you know? The researchers discovered money is indeed a major factor in day-to-day happiness. If you find that hard to believe, you aren’t alone. Time Magazine in 1971

Daniel Kahneman on Making Smarter Decisions The bestselling author of Thinking, Fast and Slow talks about overcoming the cognitive biases and errors that can affect decision-making. You can avoid decision-making mistakes by understanding the differences between these two systems of thought. Nobel winner Daniel Kahneman says we tyically fear loss twice as much as we relish success. Nobel laureate Daniel Kahneman says people always overestimate their ability to predict the future. Nobel laureate Daniel Kahneman says that if you rationally weighed the odds of success, you'd never start a business. Don't let especially lucky or unlucky outliers influence your decisions. You're likely to give more weight to experience than hard data, even when the past is unlikely to predict the future. You can gain the upper hand in negotiations by setting--or resetting--the anchor number. Be wary of constructing a story based only on what you see--you may not realize what you don't know.

Truth, Philosophers and Reading Between the Lines « Bad Conscience {*style:<b>Truth, Philosophers and Reading Between the Lines: A Critical Examination of the Methodology of Leo Strauss </b>*} Leo Strauss’ contains a striking claim. At first glance, this astounding claim appears to rely on a series of conspicuously poor arguments. This claim about persecution initially appears simply too general to be credible as an account of history. Strauss appears to rest this claim about persecution generating hidden “esoteric” teachings on a host of arguments which initially appear decidedly third-rate. Unsurprisingly given Strauss’ standing as a thinker there is significantly more to his work than first meets the eye and such easy retorts miss their target. For Strauss, “persecution” properly understood (i.e. when applied to “philosophers”) means more than simply censorship or suppression by authorities. What exactly this terrible society-destroying truth naturally becomes the burning question. Imagine a reader who is sceptical of Strauss’ core contention.

Why Daydreaming Makes You Smarter and More Creative Editors’ Note: Portions of this post appeared in similar form in an October, 2011, post by Jonah Lehrer for Wired.com, in an August, 2008, column by Lehrer for the Boston Globe, and in his previously published book “Imagine.” We regret the duplication of material. Humans are a daydreaming species. At first glance, such data seems like a confirmation of our inherent laziness. In recent years, however, psychologists and neuroscientists have redeemed this mental state, revealing the ways in which mind-wandering is an essential cognitive tool. Virginia Woolf, in her novel “To The Lighthouse,” eloquently describes this form of thinking as it unfolds inside the mind of a character named Lily: Certainly she was losing consciousness of outer things. A daydream is that fountain spurting, spilling strange new thoughts into the stream of consciousness. Subjects were then randomly assigned to one of four different conditions. What does this mean? Editors’ Notes: Photograph by Peter Marlow/Magnum.

Survival of the ... Nicest? Check Out the Other Theory of Evolution by Eric Michael Johnson A new theory of human origins says cooperation—not competition—is instinctive. posted May 03, 2013 A century ago, industrialists like Andrew Carnegie believed that Darwin’s theories justified an economy of vicious competition and inequality. They left us with an ideological legacy that says the corporate economy, in which wealth concentrates in the hands of a few, produces the best for humanity. Nearly 150 years later, modern science has verified Darwin’s early insights with direct implications for how we do business in our society. Tomasello holds that there were two key steps that led to humans’ unique form of interdependence. However, this survival strategy brought an entirely new set of challenges: Individuals now had to coordinate their behaviors, work together, and learn how to share. Like what you’re reading? This evolutionary legacy can be seen in our behavior today, particularly among children who are too young to have been taught such notions of fairness. Interested?

Canada Research Chair for Social Justice: Shadia B. Drury Leo Strauss was a German- Jewish émigré political philosopher and historian of political thought, who wrote some fifteen books and eighty articles on the history of political thought from Socrates to Nietzsche. Strauss was no ordinary historian of ideas; he used the history of thought as a vehicle for expressing his own ideas. In his writings, he contrasted the wisdom of ancient philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle with the foolhardiness of' modern philosophers such as Hobbes and Locke. He thought that the loss of ancient wisdom was the reason for the 'crisis of the West--an expression that was in part a reference to the barbarities of the Holocaust. He therefore sought to recover the lost wisdom. Strauss was born in Kirchhain, Hessen, Germany. According to Strauss, the fundamental issue that divides ancient and modern thinkers is the relative importance of reason and revelation in human life. List of works ----------, (1959) What is Political Philosophy?

What Does Your Body Language Say About You? How To Read Signs and Recognize Gestures - Jinxi Boo - Jinxi Boo Art by LaetitziaAs we all know, communication is essential in society. Advancements in technology have transformed the way that we correspond with others in the modern world. Because of the constant buzz in our technological world, it's easy to forget how important communicating face-to-face is. Body language is truly a language of its own. 10% from what the person actually says40% from the tone and speed of voice50% is from their body language. Lowering one's head can signal a lack of confidence. Pushing back one's shoulders can demonstrate power and courageOpen arms means one is comfortable with being approached and willing to talk/communicate The lowering of the eyes can convey fear, guilt or submissionLowered eyebrows and squinted eyes illustrate an attempt at understanding what is being said or going onA lack of confidence or apprehensiveness can be displayed when you don't look another person in the eyesOne tends to blink more often if nervous or trying to evaluate someone else

Illustrated English Idioms and their Meanings Having recently moved to Brazil, learning a new language and also teaching English, illustrator Roisin Hahessy got thinking about the the English language. On her website, she declares, “When I stopped to think about some English idioms and their literal meaning, I found some of them very funny and thought it would be a nice idea to pick a few of the most common idioms and illustrate them.” The images below have been reproduced with the direct permission of the illustrator These fantastic illustrations would be ideal for classroom use, when discussing idioms, and similar expressions used in the English language: You can purchase each print individually on Roisin’s website by clicking here. News Websites for Language Learners by @rbsaglam I watch TV series in English and I read news in English. 8th April 2015 In "GuestBlog" Guest-Blog: The Importance of Language Learning by @TheEmmaWhite1 25th February 2015

Political Philosophy  Political philosophy begins with the question: what ought to be a person’s relationship to society? The subject seeks the application of ethical concepts to the social sphere and thus deals with the variety of forms of government and social existence that people could live in – and in so doing, it also provides a standard by which to analyze and judge existing institutions and relationships. Although the two are intimately linked by a range of philosophical issues and methods, political philosophy can be distinguished from political science. Political science predominantly deals with existing states of affairs, and insofar as it is possible to be amoral in its descriptions, it seeks a positive analysis of social affairs – for example, constitutional issues, voting behavior, the balance of power, the effect of judicial review, and so forth. Table of Contents 1. Political philosophy has its beginnings in ethics: in questions such as what kind of life is the good life for human beings. 2.

How People are Fooled by Evidence Rationality is the crowning achievement of our species. The ability to use evidence is true the cornerstone of science, medicine, and our legal system. We use rational methods, too, in daily life – we assess an applicant’s resume, a child’s IQ, or the mileage of a used car to predict the likelihood of good performance later on. There is a line of psychological research that studies precisely this, by measuring how accurate we are at making probability judgments. Imagine, for example, that you are in a library (assuming people still do such things), and you’ve become lost. Book 1: Piers Anthony’s Blue Adept: The Apprentice Adept Book 2: J. You’re not sure how to categorize Book 1, so it’s not good evidence for either Science Fiction or Fantasy. Here’s where things get interesting. Researchers Whitman and Woodward recently demonstrated this effect in a controlled laboratory setting. Changing how information is displayed may be something we do without realizing it.

Apple Search - Apple Trees for Sale <div class="noscript"><p><strong>WARNING: Many features of this website require JavaScript. You appear to have JavaScript disabled or running a non-JavaScript capable web browser.</strong></p><p>To get the best experience, please enable JavaScript or download a newer web browser such as <a href=" Explorer 8</a>, <a href=" <a href=" or <a href="www.google.com/chrome">Google Chrome</a>.</p></div> Apple Search Apple trees are $20 each. You can help the heritage apple search and preservation effort by purchasing some of Tom Brown’s apple trees. We have about 100 apple varieties for Spring sale in very limited quantities. Banana---large to very large, globular, yellow with a red blush, juicy, from an immense old tree laying down on the ground, ripe October, found in Alleghany Co., NC. Top of Page

Autonomy: Normative  Autonomy is variously rendered as self-law, self-government, self-rule, or self-determination. The concept first came into prominence in ancient Greece (from the Greek auto-nomos), where it characterized city states that were self governing. Only later–during the European Enlightenment–did autonomy come to be widely understood as a property of persons. Today the concept is used in both senses, although most contemporary philosophers deal with autonomy primarily as a property of persons. This orientation will be maintained here. Most people would agree that autonomy is normatively important. This article will be devoted to canvassing the leading work done by philosophers on these two issues, beginning with the question of the nature of autonomy, and then moving to the question of the normative significance of autonomy. Table of Contents 1. The concept of autonomy first came into prominence in ancient Greece, where it characterized self-governing city-states. 2. a. b. c.

The Benefits of Daydreaming A new study suggests that a daydreaming is an indicator of a well-equipped brain Does your mind wander? During a class or meeting, do you find yourself staring out the window and thinking about what you’ll do tomorrow or next week? Well, psychological research is beginning to reveal that daydreaming is a strong indicator of an active and well-equipped brain. A new study, published in Psychological Science by researchers from the University of Wisconsin and the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Science, suggests that a wandering mind correlates with higher degrees of what is referred to as working memory. For example, imagine that, when leaving a friend ‘s house, you promise to call when you get home safely. In the study, the researchers sought to examine the relationship between people’s working memory capacity and their tendency to daydream. Surprisingly, there was a correlation between mind wandering during the first task and high scores on the working memory test.

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