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The Overjustification Effect

The Overjustification Effect
The Misconception: There is nothing better in the world than getting paid to do what you love. The Truth: Getting paid for doing what you already enjoy will sometimes cause your love for the task to wane because you attribute your motivation as coming from the reward, not your internal feelings. Office Space – Courtesy Twentieth Century Fox Money isn’t everything. Money can’t buy happiness. Don’t live someone else’s dream. Maxims like these often find their way into your social media; they arrive in your electronic mailbox at the ends of dense chains of forwards. Money, fame, and prestige – they dangle just outside your reach it seems, encouraging you to lean farther and farther over the edge, to study longer and longer, to work harder and harder. If only science had something concrete to say about the whole thing, you know? The researchers discovered money is indeed a major factor in day-to-day happiness. If you find that hard to believe, you aren’t alone. Time Magazine in 1971 Related:  hapleaioBehavioral Economics

Daniel Kahneman on Making Smarter Decisions The bestselling author of Thinking, Fast and Slow talks about overcoming the cognitive biases and errors that can affect decision-making. You can avoid decision-making mistakes by understanding the differences between these two systems of thought. Nobel winner Daniel Kahneman says we tyically fear loss twice as much as we relish success. Nobel laureate Daniel Kahneman says people always overestimate their ability to predict the future. Nobel laureate Daniel Kahneman says that if you rationally weighed the odds of success, you'd never start a business. Don't let especially lucky or unlucky outliers influence your decisions. You're likely to give more weight to experience than hard data, even when the past is unlikely to predict the future. You can gain the upper hand in negotiations by setting--or resetting--the anchor number. Be wary of constructing a story based only on what you see--you may not realize what you don't know.

Overjustification effect The overjustification effect occurs when an expected external incentive such as money or prizes decreases a person's intrinsic motivation to perform a task. According to self-perception theory, people pay more attention to the external reward for an activity than to the inherent enjoyment and satisfaction received from the activity itself. The overall effect of offering a reward for a previously unrewarded activity is a shift to extrinsic motivation and the undermining of pre-existing intrinsic motivation. Once rewards are no longer offered, interest in the activity is lost; prior intrinsic motivation does not return, and extrinsic rewards must be continuously offered as motivation to sustain the activity.[1] Experimental evidence[edit] Researchers at Southern Methodist University conducted an experiment on 188 female university students in which they measured the subjects' continued interest in a cognitive task (a word game) after their initial performance under different incentives.

Truth, Philosophers and Reading Between the Lines « Bad Conscience {*style:<b>Truth, Philosophers and Reading Between the Lines: A Critical Examination of the Methodology of Leo Strauss </b>*} Leo Strauss’ contains a striking claim. At first glance, this astounding claim appears to rely on a series of conspicuously poor arguments. This claim about persecution initially appears simply too general to be credible as an account of history. Strauss appears to rest this claim about persecution generating hidden “esoteric” teachings on a host of arguments which initially appear decidedly third-rate. Unsurprisingly given Strauss’ standing as a thinker there is significantly more to his work than first meets the eye and such easy retorts miss their target. For Strauss, “persecution” properly understood (i.e. when applied to “philosophers”) means more than simply censorship or suppression by authorities. What exactly this terrible society-destroying truth naturally becomes the burning question. Imagine a reader who is sceptical of Strauss’ core contention.

Better Behaved Behavioral Models | MIND Guest Blog, Scientific American Blog Network The views expressed are those of the author and are not necessarily those of Scientific American. We often can’t rely on ourselves to act rationally. We know this, but much social science has a bad habit of ignoring it. The widely used Rational Actor Model rests on three assumptions: First, life is a stream of decisions, second we make them consciously, often by calculation, and third, they lead us to act rationally. The Rational Actor Model isn’t an action model; it’s a decision-model that sadly ignores how we do much of what we do. Behavioral Economics—its name amusingly highlighting what’s been lacking— offers hope. Better behavioral models should be, like us, habit driven. Each habit can be modeled as a situational trigger with an action script. We must be rational when habits are acquired, since later they will be repeated without deliberation. Force of habit shapes our lives. Previously in this series:

Survival of the ... Nicest? Check Out the Other Theory of Evolution by Eric Michael Johnson A new theory of human origins says cooperation—not competition—is instinctive. posted May 03, 2013 A century ago, industrialists like Andrew Carnegie believed that Darwin’s theories justified an economy of vicious competition and inequality. They left us with an ideological legacy that says the corporate economy, in which wealth concentrates in the hands of a few, produces the best for humanity. Nearly 150 years later, modern science has verified Darwin’s early insights with direct implications for how we do business in our society. Tomasello holds that there were two key steps that led to humans’ unique form of interdependence. However, this survival strategy brought an entirely new set of challenges: Individuals now had to coordinate their behaviors, work together, and learn how to share. Like what you’re reading? This evolutionary legacy can be seen in our behavior today, particularly among children who are too young to have been taught such notions of fairness. Interested?

Focusing on intrinsic reinforcers and punishers, and your dog's innate needs This page is a component of the Glossary of the Dog Science, CBC Dog Training Workshop, and an element of the Dog Science Network Go to the index of the Glossary of Terms Intrinsic Desires, Intrinsic Reinforcers, and Intrinsic Punishers When we speak of a desire as being intrinsic or innate, we mean that it is deeply bred into the genetic and physiological fabric of our being. The desire to feel good is also intrinsic. When a thing like food or water or meaningful physical contact serves to increase the frequency of your target response, it is called an intrinsic reinforcer. When you cause a dog to emit the target behavior less often by making him emotionally upset or physically uncomfortable after the fact, then, you are said to be using intrinsic punishment. Of all the various types of punishment and reinforcement, intrinsic punishers and intrinsic reinforcers are hands down more effective at fostering change as compared to social reinforcers and social punishers.

Canada Research Chair for Social Justice: Shadia B. Drury Leo Strauss was a German- Jewish émigré political philosopher and historian of political thought, who wrote some fifteen books and eighty articles on the history of political thought from Socrates to Nietzsche. Strauss was no ordinary historian of ideas; he used the history of thought as a vehicle for expressing his own ideas. In his writings, he contrasted the wisdom of ancient philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle with the foolhardiness of' modern philosophers such as Hobbes and Locke. He thought that the loss of ancient wisdom was the reason for the 'crisis of the West--an expression that was in part a reference to the barbarities of the Holocaust. He therefore sought to recover the lost wisdom. Strauss was born in Kirchhain, Hessen, Germany. According to Strauss, the fundamental issue that divides ancient and modern thinkers is the relative importance of reason and revelation in human life. List of works ----------, (1959) What is Political Philosophy?

Do cheaters have an evolutionary advantage? -- ScienceDaily Anyone who has crawled along in the left lane while other drivers raced up the right lane, which was clearly marked "lane ends, merge left," has experienced social cheating, a maddening and fascinating behavior common to many species. Although it won't help with road rage, scientists are beginning to understand cheating in simpler "model systems," such as the social amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum. At one stage in their life cycle thousands of the normally solitary Dicty converge to form a multicellular slug and then a fruiting body, consisting of a stalk holding aloft a ball of spores. It is during this cooperative act that the opportunity for cheating arises. Some amoebae ultimately become cells in the stalk of the fruiting body and die, while others rise to the top, and form spores that pass their genes to the next generation. Now the ease and low cost of genome sequencing has finally made it possible to answer the question. An arms race or trench warfare? But why is that?

Illustrated English Idioms and their Meanings Having recently moved to Brazil, learning a new language and also teaching English, illustrator Roisin Hahessy got thinking about the the English language. On her website, she declares, “When I stopped to think about some English idioms and their literal meaning, I found some of them very funny and thought it would be a nice idea to pick a few of the most common idioms and illustrate them.” The images below have been reproduced with the direct permission of the illustrator These fantastic illustrations would be ideal for classroom use, when discussing idioms, and similar expressions used in the English language: You can purchase each print individually on Roisin’s website by clicking here. News Websites for Language Learners by @rbsaglam I watch TV series in English and I read news in English. 8th April 2015 In "GuestBlog" Guest-Blog: The Importance of Language Learning by @TheEmmaWhite1 25th February 2015

Maximizers and Satisfiers (satisfaction through making do) The large points first: Most happiness researchers agree that being surrounded by friends and family is one of the most crucial determinants of our well-being. Yet New York, as surprisingly neighborly a city as it is, is still predicated on a certain principle of atomization. Being married would help in this instance, obviously. But New York City’s percentage of unmarried adults is nine points higher than the national average, at 52 percent. Then there’s the question of the hedonic treadmill, such a demonic little term, so vivid, so apt. Which is where the subtle thesis of Barry Schwartz’s The Paradox of Choice comes in. Economists have a term for those who seek out the best options in life. My favorite study in Schwartz’s book was about jam. As I read this, it was hard not to think of New York City dating life. Choice creates unhappiness, argues Barry Schwartz, so “New Yorkers should probably be the unhappiest people on the planet.

Political Philosophy  Political philosophy begins with the question: what ought to be a person’s relationship to society? The subject seeks the application of ethical concepts to the social sphere and thus deals with the variety of forms of government and social existence that people could live in – and in so doing, it also provides a standard by which to analyze and judge existing institutions and relationships. Although the two are intimately linked by a range of philosophical issues and methods, political philosophy can be distinguished from political science. Political science predominantly deals with existing states of affairs, and insofar as it is possible to be amoral in its descriptions, it seeks a positive analysis of social affairs – for example, constitutional issues, voting behavior, the balance of power, the effect of judicial review, and so forth. Table of Contents 1. Political philosophy has its beginnings in ethics: in questions such as what kind of life is the good life for human beings. 2.

Please, not another bias! An evolutionary take on behavioural economics | EVOLVING ECONOMICS Below is a transcript of my planned presentation at today’s Marketing Science Ideas Xchange. The important images from the slide pack are below, but the full set of slides is available here. Please, not another bias! Thank you for the invitation to speak today. I accepted the invite because natural selection has shaped the human mind to take actions that have, in our past, tended increase reproductive success. That statement isn’t as creepy as it sounds. For example, we seek status – and what could be more status-enhancing than speaking here. Another place where I signal is my blog, Evolving Economics. To explain why I engage in this costly signalling – conference speaking, blogging and the like – I will first take a step back and explain how the evolutionary approach to decision making relates to other approaches, starting with behavioural economics. I once had an online discussion about this point with last year’s MSiX headlining speaker Rory Sutherland. So, to content. Sex Present bias

Apple Search - Apple Trees for Sale <div class="noscript"><p><strong>WARNING: Many features of this website require JavaScript. You appear to have JavaScript disabled or running a non-JavaScript capable web browser.</strong></p><p>To get the best experience, please enable JavaScript or download a newer web browser such as <a href=" Explorer 8</a>, <a href=" <a href=" or <a href="www.google.com/chrome">Google Chrome</a>.</p></div> Apple Search Apple trees are $20 each. You can help the heritage apple search and preservation effort by purchasing some of Tom Brown’s apple trees. We have about 100 apple varieties for Spring sale in very limited quantities. Banana---large to very large, globular, yellow with a red blush, juicy, from an immense old tree laying down on the ground, ripe October, found in Alleghany Co., NC. Top of Page

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