Cotton–Mouton effect
In physical optics, the Cotton–Mouton effect refers to birefringence in a liquid in the presence of a constant transverse magnetic field. It is a similar but stronger effect than the Voigt effect (in which the medium is a gas instead of a liquid). The electric analog is the Kerr effect. It was discovered in 1907 by Aimé Cotton and Henri Mouton, working in collaboration. When a linearly polarized wave propagates perpendicular to magnetic field (e.g. in a magnetized plasma), it can become elliptized.

Leonard Susskind On His Black Hole War with Stephen Hawking
Leonard Susskind [Photo by Anne Elizabeth Warren] CLR INTERVIEW: Leonard Susskind is the Felix Bloch Professor of theoretical physics at Stanford University. His new book, The Black Hole Wars, details his battles with Stephen Hawking over the true nature of black holes. The resulting theory postulates that every object in our world is actually a hologram being projected from the farthest edges of space. Seriously.
Cayley graph
The Cayley graph of the free group on two generators a and b Definition[edit] Suppose that is a generating set. The Cayley graph

Curse of dimensionality
The curse of dimensionality refers to various phenomena that arise when analyzing and organizing data in high-dimensional spaces (often with hundreds or thousands of dimensions) that do not occur in low-dimensional settings such as the three-dimensional physical space of everyday experience. The term curse of dimensionality was coined by Richard E. Bellman when considering problems in dynamic optimization.[1][2] The "curse of dimensionality" depends on the algorithm[edit] The "curse of dimensionality" is not a problem of high-dimensional data, but a joint problem of the data and the algorithm being applied.

Birefringence
A calcite crystal laid upon a graph paper with blue lines showing the double refraction Doubly refracted image as seen through a calcite crystal, seen through a rotating polarizing filter illustrating the opposite polarization states of the two images. Explanation[edit] The simplest (and most common) type of birefringence is that of materials with uniaxial anisotropy. That is, the structure of the material is such that it has an axis of symmetry with all perpendicular directions optically equivalent. This axis is known as the optic axis of the material, and components of light with linear polarizations parallel and perpendicular to it have unequal indices of refraction, denoted ne and no, respectively, where the subscripts stand for extraordinary and ordinary.

The Analysis of mind, by Bertrand Russell.
Russell, Bertrand, 1872-1970. . The Analysis of mind, by Bertrand Russell. Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library | Table of Contents for this work | | All on-line databases | Etext Center Homepage | There are certain occurrences which we are in the habit of calling "mental."

Hopf fibration
The Hopf fibration can be visualized using a stereographic projection of S3 to R3 and then compressing R3 to a ball. This image shows points on S2 and their corresponding fibers with the same color. Pairwise linked keyrings mimic part of the Hopf fibration.
Kaluza–Klein theory
This article is about gravitation and electromagnetism. For the mathematical generalization of K theory, see KK-theory. In 1926, Oskar Klein gave Kaluza's classical 5-dimensional theory a quantum interpretation,[3][4] to accord with the then-recent discoveries of Heisenberg and Schroedinger.
Doughnut theory of the universe
Bloom Toroidal Model of the Universe The doughnut theory of the universe is an informal description of the theory that the shape of the universe is a three-dimensional torus. The name comes from the shape of a doughnut, whose surface has the topology of a two-dimensional torus. The foundation for the doughnut theory started with Bell Lab’s discovery of cosmic microwave background (CMB). With the information provided from the study of CMB, Dr. Alexi Starobinski conceived the doughnut theory of the universe along with his mentor, Dr.

How Many Influence, Persuasion, Compliance Tactics & Strategies Are There?
How many influence tactics exist? There were a number of attempts to create influence taxonomies in the 1980s, and the answer to the question depends on (you guessed it!) who you ask. There's even debate over how to think about the question. Some think we should be looking for basic, underlying dimensions to influence approaches. Others attempt to identify families or clusters of tactics.
Poincaré disk model
Metric[edit] If u and v are two vectors in real n-dimensional vector space Rn with the usual Euclidean norm, both of which have norm less than 1, then we may define an isometric invariant by where denotes the usual Euclidean norm. Then the distance function is

String theory
String theory was first studied in the late 1960s[3] as a theory of the strong nuclear force before being abandoned in favor of the theory of quantum chromodynamics. Subsequently, it was realized that the very properties that made string theory unsuitable as a theory of nuclear physics made it a promising candidate for a quantum theory of gravity. Five consistent versions of string theory were developed until it was realized in the mid-1990s that they were different limits of a conjectured single 11-dimensional theory now known as M-theory.[4] Many theoretical physicists, including Stephen Hawking, Edward Witten and Juan Maldacena, believe that string theory is a step towards the correct fundamental description of nature: it accommodates a consistent combination of quantum field theory and general relativity, agrees with insights in quantum gravity (such as the holographic principle and black hole thermodynamics) and has passed many non-trivial checks of its internal consistency.

Fresnel diffraction
In optics, the Fresnel diffraction equation for near-field diffraction, is an approximation of Kirchhoff-Fresnel diffraction that can be applied to the propagation of waves in the near field.[1] It is used to calculate the diffraction pattern created by waves passing through an aperture or around an object, when viewed from relatively close to the object. In contrast the diffraction pattern in the far field region is given by the Fraunhofer diffraction equation. The near field can be specified by the Fresnel number, F of the optical arrangement. When the diffracted wave is considered to be in the near field.

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