Primitive reflexes Older children and adults with atypical neurology (e.g., people with cerebral palsy) may retain these reflexes and primitive reflexes may reappear in adults. Reappearance may be attributed to certain neurological conditions including, but not limited to, dementia (especially in a rare set of diseases called frontotemporal degenerations), traumatic lesions, and strokes. An individual with cerebral palsy and typical intelligence can learn to suppress these reflexes, but the reflex might resurface under certain conditions (i.e., during extreme startle reaction). Reflexes may also be limited to those areas affected by the atypical neurology, (i.e., individuals with cerebral palsy that only affects their legs retaining the Babinski reflex but having normal speech); for those individuals with hemiplegia, the reflex may be seen in the foot on the affected side only. Primitive reflexes are primarily tested with suspected brain injury for the purpose of assessing frontal lobe functioning.
Depression The Role of Depression and Anxiety in Substance Use Although it is common for teens to experience frequent mood swings, your teen may be experiencing a form of depression if clusters of the following thoughts, feelings, and behaviors persist for two weeks or longer. Prompt identification and treatment of depression can reduce its durations and severity. Look for the following signs: (Adapted from U.S. KNOW YOUR FAMILY HISTORY of mental health issues. Chapter 2—How Stimulants Affect the Brain and Behavior - Treatment for Stimulant Use Disorders - NCBI Bookshelf by Saul McLeod published 2007, updated 2013 Like many great scientific advances, Pavlovian conditioning (aka classical conditioning) was discovered accidentally. During the 1890s Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov was looking at salivation in dogs in response to being fed, when he noticed that his dogs would begin to salivate whenever he entered the room, even when he was not bringing them food. At first this was something of a nuisance (not to mention messy!). Pavlovian Conditioning Pavlov (1902) started from the idea that there are some things that a dog does not need to learn. Unconditioned Stimulus (Food) > Unconditioned Response (Salivate) Pavlov showed the existence of the unconditioned response by presenting a dog with a bowl of food and the measuring its salivary secretions (see image below). Pavlov knew that somehow, the dogs in his lab had learned to associate food with his lab assistant. In behaviorist terms, the lab assistant was originally a neutral stimulus. Summary References
Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse: Signs, Symptoms, and Help for Drinking Problems Understanding alcoholism and alcohol abuse Alcoholism and alcohol abuse are due to many interconnected factors, including genetics, how you were raised, your social environment, and your emotional health. Some racial groups, such as American Indians and Native Alaskans, are more at risk than others of developing alcohol addiction. People who have a family history of alcoholism or who associate closely with heavy drinkers are more likely to develop drinking problems. Finally, those who suffer from a mental health problem such as anxiety, depression, or bipolar disorder are also particularly at risk, because alcohol may be used to self-medicate. Do you have a drinking problem? You may have a drinking problem if you... Feel guilty or ashamed about your drinking. Since drinking is so common in many cultures and the effects vary so widely from person to person, it’s not always easy to figure out where the line is between social drinking and problem drinking. Signs and symptoms of alcohol abuse
Nasty effects of road accidents (caution very graphic and potentially offensive images)! - Car Talk Nairaland Forum / Nairaland / General / Car Talk / Nasty effects of road accidents (caution very graphic and potentially offensive images)! (558119 Views) Bodies Burnt Beyond Recognition In Enugu Multiple Car Accidents(Graphic Photos) / This Accident Happend At Aggrey Road PortHarcout This Morning(very Graphic Pic) / I Am More Afraid Of Road Safety Than Police And Army. (1) (2) (3) (4) (0) (1) (2) (3) (Reply) (Go Down) Dangers of Alcohol Heroin / Cocaine In an article published in the medical journal Lancet, the drugs expert Professor David Nutt, a former chairman of the government’s drugs advisory England, introducing a new way to measure the damage caused (misuse) of drugs that assess the danger at the individual level as well as the danger to the community as a whole. The results of the analysis showed that when both of the above factors combined, alcohol abuse is the most dangerous or damaging, only then heroin and then cocaine. The paper was written by Professor Nutt of Imperial College London, and the Independent Science Committee on Drugs, Dr. The new assessment uses nine categories of danger to self and seven categories of hazards to the community as a whole variety of individuals. The categories “danger to self” itself covers death or mortality, poor health, decreased intellect, loss of friendships and injury. The categories “danger to others” include crime, environmental damage, family conflict and decline in community unity.
Why People with Down Syndrome Invariably Develop Alzheimer’s Disease A new study by researchers at Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute reveals the process that leads to changes in the brains of individuals with Down syndrome—the same changes that cause dementia in Alzheimer’s patients. The findings, published in Cell Reports, have important implications for the development of treatments that can prevent damage in neuronal connectivity and brain function in Down syndrome and other neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative conditions, including Alzheimer’s disease. Down syndrome is characterized by an extra copy of chromosome 21 and is the most common chromosome abnormality in humans. It occurs in about one per 700 babies in the United States, and is associated with a mild to moderate intellectual disability. Amyloid plaques are found in the brains of people with Down syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease. Beta-Amyloid, Plaques and Dementia Xu’s team found that SNX27 regulates beta-amyloid generation. SNX27’s Role in Brain Function Share this Neurology News
Alcohol Abuse Statistics - Facts About Alcoholism & Addiction - Drug-Free World Alcohol kills more teenagers than all other drugs combined. It is a factor in the three leading causes of death among 15- to 24-year-olds: accidents, homicides and suicides. Youth who drink are 7.5 times more likely to use other illegal drugs and fifty times more likely to use cocaine than young people who never drink. One survey found that 32% of the heavy drinkers over 12 were also illegal drug users. Quotes About Science Neurology (1 quote) “Individuality is deeply imbued in us from the very start, at the neuronal level. Even at a motor level, researchers have shown, an infant does not follow a set pattern of learning to walk or how to reach for something. Each baby experiments with different ways of reaching for objects and over the course of several months discovers or selects his own motor solutions. When we try to envisage the neural basis of such individual learning, we might imagine a "population" of movements (and their neural correlates) being strengthened or pruned away by experience. Similar considerations arise with regard to recover and rehabilitation after strokes and other injuries. And in its broadest sense, neural Darwinism implies that we are destined, whether we wish it or not, to a life of particularity and self-development, to make our own individual paths through life