background preloader

Analogy as the Core of Cognition

Analogy as the Core of Cognition
Related:  Linguisticscontainerthéorie apprentissage

What a difference a word can make People spend a good deal of time talking to one another, and in general we do it pretty well. We might feel excited, angry, embarrassed, or — if we’re lucky — loved, in the course of our daily conversations. So is there any benefit to thinking about a science of talk? I believe we can, and I’ve spent the last 20 years studying real talk from real people talking to each other in real time. Take this ordinary telephone call between two friends, Nancy and Hyla, transcribed according to the standard conversation analysis transcription system, which includes intonation and the actual sounds being made rather than just the correct spelling of a word (lines under a word represent emphasis and different movements in pitch, the equals sign means that the turns are very rapid): On the face of it, this is utterly mundane. Perhaps this seems obvious. Like Nancy, Gordon produces an answering “hello.” 1. 2. 3. 4. Featured image courtesy iStock.

Pattern Pattern is a web mining module for the Python programming language. It has tools for data mining (Google, Twitter and Wikipedia API, a web crawler, a HTML DOM parser), natural language processing (part-of-speech taggers, n-gram search, sentiment analysis, WordNet), machine learning (vector space model, clustering, SVM), network analysis and <canvas> visualization. The module is free, well-document and bundled with 50+ examples and 350+ unit tests. Download Installation Pattern is written for Python 2.5+ (no support for Python 3 yet). To install Pattern so that the module is available in all Python scripts, from the command line do: > cd pattern-2.6 > python install If you have pip, you can automatically download and install from the PyPi repository: If none of the above works, you can make Python aware of the module in three ways: Quick overview pattern.web pattern.en The pattern.en module is a natural language processing (NLP) toolkit for English. pattern.vector Case studies

Brochure: Europa en het hoger onderwijs Meer winst voor bedrijven, hogere kosten voor studenten, minder kwaliteit Onderwijsinstellingen zijn ´leerfabrieken´ geworden, productieplaatsen waar in zo kort mogelijke tijd en tegen zo laag mogelijke kosten gekwalificeerde arbeidskrachten gemaakt moeten worden. Er is een uitgebreid management dat er op toe ziet dat dit ´productieproces´ efficiënt verloopt volgens duidelijke normen en regels. Studenten zijn ‘halffabrikaten’ waaruit een voor de arbeidsmarkt bruikbaar eindproduct moet worden gemaakt. Europa moet een sterke en dynamische ´kenniseconomie´ worden en deze economie heeft mensen nodig voor wie concurrentie en competitie een uitdaging vormen. Mensen voor wie studeren niet meer een tijd is van onderzoek en persoonlijke ontwikkeling, maar voor wie een opleiding een `investering in je eigen toekomst´ is. door Alexander Beunder, Willem Bos, Jeremy Crowlesmith [Download hier de PDF versie van deze Brochure: Europa en het hoger onderwijs of lees hier de PDF online] Inhoud Inleiding

Le rôle des outils et des artefacts culturels dans le développement cognitif Vygotsky (1962, 1978) propose une distinction entre les outils symboliques et les outils matériels qui met en évidence l’importance théorique de l’outil dans la cognition. Lave (1977), Nunes, Schliemann et Carraher (1993), Saxe (1999) et Guberman (1996) soulignent aussi le rôle des activités basées sur des « instruments » (tools) pour le développement des représentations et opérations cognitives. Cette perspective repose sur une idée fondamentale de la psychologie vygotskienne, bien définie par le psychologue russe Tikhomirov (1974) : « Les outils ne sont pas de simples ajouts à l’activité humaine, ils la transforment » (p. 374). De ce point de vue, les outils peuvent être concrets ou symboliques. Cependant, la plupart d’entre eux sont les deux à la fois, du fait même qu’un outil apparemment concret, tel qu’un métier à tisser, requiert une activité de représentation. La présentation qui suit porte sur une période qui s’étend de 1969 à 2003.

Douglas Hofstadter Douglas Richard Hofstadter (born February 15, 1945) is an American professor of cognitive science whose research focuses on the sense of "I",[2][3] consciousness, analogy-making, artistic creation, literary translation, and discovery in mathematics and physics. He is best known for his book Gödel, Escher, Bach: an Eternal Golden Braid, first published in 1979. It won both the Pulitzer Prize for general non-fiction[4][5] and a National Book Award (at that time called The American Book Award) for Science.[6][a] His 2007 book I Am a Strange Loop won the Los Angeles Times Book Prize for Science and Technology.[7][8][9] Early life and education[edit] Hofstadter was born in New York City, the son of Nobel Prize-winning physicist Robert Hofstadter. Academic career[edit] Hofstadter's many interests include music, visual art, the mind, creativity, consciousness, self-reference, translation and mathematics. The pursuit of beauty has driven Hofstadter both inside and outside his professional work.

The Hidden Connection Between Morality and Language Tragedy can strike us any time, but that doesn’t mean we can’t make the best of it. When Frank’s dog was struck and killed by a car in front of his house, he grew curious what Fido might taste like. So he cooked him up and ate him for dinner. Janet Geipel of the University of Trento in Italy posed fictional scenarios like these to German-, Italian-, and English-speaking college students in each student’s native language and in a second language that they spoke almost fluently. People are more likely to act less emotionally and more rationally when speaking their second language, according to Geipel. The distinction is an important one: If moral decisions are contingent on the language in which they are posed then the decisions of people who must work in a foreign language on a daily basis—immigrants, international corporations, international institutions—would need to be reevaluated. Moral decisions tend to be made using two thought processes—one subconscious, one conscious.

100 days of web mining In this experiment, we collected Google News stories at regular 1-hour intervals between November 22, 2010, and March 8, 2011, resulting in a set of 6,405 news stories. We grouped these per day and then determined the top daily keywords using tf-idf, a measurement of a word's uniqueness or importance. For example: if the word news is mentioned every day, it is not particularly unique at any single given day. To set up the experiment we used the Pattern web mining module for Python.The basic script is simple enough: Your code will probably have some preprocessing steps to save and load the mined news updates. In the image below, important words (i.e., events) that occured across multiple days are highlighted (we took a word's document frequency as an indication). See full size image Simultaneously, we mined Twitter messages containing the words I love or I hate – 35,784 love-tweets and 35,212 hate-tweets in total. Daily drudge Here are the top keywords of hate-tweets grouped by day:

Map: If You Thought Chicago's Teacher Strike Was a Big Deal… Update Wednesday, November 14: Thought teacher strikes were yesterday's news? Turns out that September's walkout by Chicago teachers set off a rash of other strikes in Illinois. The Chicago Teachers Union ultimately ratified a 3-year contract, raising pay by about 18 percent on average. But Lake Forest teachers decided to strike the same week over similar issues: health care, benefits, and performance evaluations linked to standardized test scores, closely followed by three additional Chicagoland teacher strikes. By our count, there have been 839 teacher strikes in the US in the last four decades, 740 in Pennsylvania alone. (See below the map for notes on the ins-and-outs of what constitutes a strike, strike legality, and more.) Are we missing a strike? Note that in some states, for example Washington, teachers are not legally protected if they strike, but don't face any legal penalties if they choose to do so.

De la médiation Le mot médiation est utilisé aujourd'hui dans des contextes très variés (juridiques, politiques, culturels, scolaires… etc.), c’est pourquoi Alain Moal écrit qu’il vaut mieux parler des médiations. Les pratiques de médiation sont multiples et se situent essentiellement dans le cadre relationnel et social. Il s’agit, avant tout, des interactions qui déclenchent des processus de changement internes et structurels qui touchent au regard sur soi, sur l'autre, sur l'environnement ou le contexte, sur ce qu'on en comprend et ce que l'on y fait, ayant pour but le développement et la création des structures cognitives. À l'origine du concept de médiation pédagogique il y a le psychologue Léon Vygotski. À son avis, l'intelligence serait une construction sociale. Reuven Feuerstein a développé, en collaboration avec Ya’acov Rand, le Programme d’enrichissement instrumental (PEI). 2) Dans un second temps, corriger ce qui peut perturber le bon fonctionnement de la pensée. · une fonction éducative ;

2012: Magnetic pole reversal happens all the (geologic) time Scientists understand that Earth's magnetic field has flipped its polarity many times over the millennia. In other words, if you were alive about 800,000 years ago, and facing what we call north with a magnetic compass in your hand, the needle would point to 'south.' This is because a magnetic compass is calibrated based on Earth's poles. The N-S markings of a compass would be 180 degrees wrong if the polarity of today's magnetic field were reversed. Many doomsday theorists have tried to take this natural geological occurrence and suggest it could lead to Earth's destruction. But would there be any dramatic effects? Reversals are the rule, not the exception. Sediment cores taken from deep ocean floors can tell scientists about magnetic polarity shifts, providing a direct link between magnetic field activity and the fossil record. Earth's polarity is not a constant. Another doomsday hypothesis about a geomagnetic flip plays up fears about incoming solar activity.

What is blue and how do we see color? Grammatical Features - Aspect Anna Kibort 1. What is 'aspect' The term 'aspect' designates the perspective taken on the internal temporal organisation of the situation, and so 'aspects' distinguish different ways of viewing the internal temporal constituency of the same situation (Comrie 1976:3ff, after Holt 1943:6; Bybee 2003:157). Aspectual meaning of a clause can be broken up into two independent aspectual components (Smith 1991/1997): Aspectual viewpoint - this is the temporal perspective from which the situation is presented. Aspectual meaning of a clause results from the interaction of aspectual viewpoint and situation type. Jump to top of page/ top of section 2. Aspectual characteristics are coded in a wide range of ways: lexical, derivational, or inflectional; synthetic ('morphological') and analytic ('syntactic'). Verbs tend to have inherent aspectual meaning because the situations described by them tend to have inherent temporal properties. Jump to top of page/ top of section 3. 4.

Huisaannemers TU/e vertrekken van De Werf | Cursor 12 september 2012 De huisaannemers van de TU/e, Imtech, Heijmans, Strukton en Van Heesewijk Bouw, hebben hun koffers nog niet gepakt. Toch wordt van hen verwacht dat ze per 1 oktober de Werf aan De Rondom hebben verlaten. Hen is opslagplaats geboden in de kelder van Laplace. De bouwbedrijven zijn niet blij met het plan. Van Dortmont begrijpt de problematiek maar stelt dat de aannemers tot nu toe in luxe verkeerden. Studentenverenigingen motorclub De Asfalthappertjes, zweefvliegclub ZES en zeilvereniging Boreas moeten hun boeltje ook per 1 oktober gepakt hebben.

Related:  La pensée analogiqueLinguística