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Using Primary Sources on the Web

Using Primary Sources on the Web
This brief guide is designed to help students and researchers find and evaluate primary sources available online. Keep in mind as you use this website, the Web is always changing and evolving. If you have questions, please consult your instructor or librarian. Primary sources are the evidence of history, original records or objects created by participants or observers at the time historical events occurred or even well after events, as in memoirs and oral histories. Primary sources may include but are not limited to: letters, manuscripts, diaries, journals, newspapers, maps, speeches, interviews, documents produced by government agencies, photographs, audio or video recordings, born-digital items (e.g. emails), research data, and objects or artifacts (such as works of art or ancient roads, buildings, tools, and weapons). These sources serve as the raw materials historians use to interpret and analyze the past. Additional Explanations and Examples of Primary Sources Benjamin, Jules R.

Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Full Texts Halsall Home | Ancient History Sourcebook | Medieval Sourcebook | Modern History Course Other History Sourcebooks: African | East Asian | Indian | Islamic | Jewish | LGBT | Women's | Global | Science Links to full texts of books available at this and other sites will be listed here. The texts are also integrated within the overall structure of the Sourcebook . This listing is to aid compilers of web guides to online books, etc. The books that tend to have been put online here, or those that have been linked, tend to be those entire books that are often assigned to students in college classes to be read along with the more usual excerpted texts. Martin Luther (1483-1546): Address To The Nobility of the German Nation , 1520, full text Martin Luther (1483-1546): Commentary on the Epistle to the Galatians , 1535, abridged, but very long, Martin Luther (1483-1546): On the Freedom of a Christian , full text Thomas Browne (1605-1682): Religio Medici , 1643 . Richard Hooker (1554? St. St. St. St. St.

Using Primary Sources - Teachers Primary sources are the raw materials of history — original documents and objects which were created at the time under study. They are different from secondary sources, accounts or interpretations of events created by someone without firsthand experience. Examining primary sources gives students a powerful sense of history and the complexity of the past. Helping students analyze primary sources can also guide them toward higher-order thinking and better critical thinking and analysis skills. Before you begin: Choose at least two or three primary sources that support the learning objectives and are accessible to students. 1. Draw on students’ prior knowledge of the topic. Ask students to closely observe each primary source. Who created this primary source? Help students see key details. What do you see that you didn’t expect? Encourage students to think about their personal response to the source. What feelings and thoughts does the primary source trigger in you? 2. 3. Top

History General History Resources American Experience Access to PBS series about American history. Many programs are available online. American Historical Association As the professional organization for historians, the AHA advocates for the profession and provides information, awards and grants, and resources for educators. Archiving Early America This site provides historical documents from 18th century America. A Biography of America This site was designed to be a self-contained college-level history course. Center for History and New Media Links to general history resources as well as specific events. Discover History The National Park Service offers links to Features of People, Places & Stories and Features of Preservation, Guidance & Grants. History & Social Studies This site from the National Endowment for the Humanities provides lesson plans about American history. History Collection University of Pennsylvania Libraries' links to resources with text archives and image sites. National History Day U.S.

Library surveys Library surveys are a useful way to align your library resources and services to meet teacher and student needs. Contents Purpose of your survey: what you want to find outDeciding on who to survey - and whyTips on how to create a good surveyCollection development surveysInformation literacy surveysLibrary use and environment surveysTeacher surveysSurvey methods Purpose of your survey: what you want to find out Have specific goals and purposes in mind before you create your survey. For example, information on favourite genres and authors could be used to: Develop your collection (fiction, non-fiction, magazines, online resources)Engage reluctant readers by shoulder-tapping them with a selection of books they may enjoyInspire displays and shelving decisions Surveying students on their attitudes toward reading at the beginning and end of a year / unit can be a useful way to: Deciding on who to survey - and why Always keep your purpose in mind when deciding who to survey. Teacher surveys

Medieval History Texts Online - Index Public domain etexts here at the Medieval History site These online texts are provided by your Guide here at the Medieval History site. All works are in the public domain and may be freely read, printed, downloaded and distributed. Primary Sources in Translation These documents are modern English translations of texts written during the Middle Ages. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle by multiple authors Translated by Rev. Secondary Sources These documents are public-domain texts written after the Middle Ages. The 1911 Encyclopedia by multiple authors A small but growing selection of articles relating to medieval studies from the 1911 edition of an excellent encyclopedia. x

Primary Sources: What Are Primary Sources? A government’s documents are direct evidence of its activities, functions, and policies. For any research that relates to the workings of government, government documents are indispensible primary sources. A wide range of primary sources are found in government documents: the hearings and debates of legislative bodies; the official text of laws, regulations and treaties; records of government expenditures and finances; statistical compilations such as census data; investigative reports; scientific data; and many other sources that touch virtually all aspects of society and human endeavor. What makes all these sources “government documents”? Note that government document collections typically do not include primary legal sources such as court decisions and law codes, which are often published by for-profit publishers and are found either in the main library collection or in separate law libraries. Suggested tools for finding government documents: Orbis MORRIS Catalog of U.S. (back to top)

Internet History Sourcebooks Project Internet History Sourcebooks Project Paul Halsall, Editor Last Modified: Nov 4 2011 | linked pages may have been updated more recently The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is a collection of public domain and copy-permitted historical texts presented cleanly (without advertising or excessive layout) for educational use. Update Information 2006: In 2006 the Internet History Sourcebooks Project is undergoing a major overhaul to remove bad links and add more documents. 1. This project is both very large and fairly old in Internet terms. 2. 3. Feedback and Help While I encourage notes, comments and feedback in general, I am unable to reply to all of them. For guidance on homework, research, how people lived/ate/dressed in the past, see the various Help! I am unable to help locate details about your family, or give translations of your name or nickname into Chinese (a very common request)! Statement on Copyright and Fair Use Course Pages by Paul Halsall

What’s our future – school libraries and librarians It disturbs me that we are not seriously thinking about the future of school libraries. This statement will receive incensed objections; teacher librarians are, after all, talking about changes in what we do and how we do it at conferences and in their own libraries. We talk about some of these changes in my own school library – delivering ebooks, providing transferable skills such as critical literacies to our students, delivering online resources. Well shoot me down if I upset you but I still think we’re not getting it. We can’t make changes to our libraries and continue to hold onto the way we’ve always done it. I seriously think we’ll be out of a job soon unless we move along with public libraries and transform what we’re doing. I don’t know about you but I can’t stop thinking about this topic. Just this morning I asked Jenny Luca on Twitter what she would be speaking about at the SLAQ2012 conference. What are the core services of libraries now and in ten year’s time? Like this:

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