The Old Kingdom is the name given to the period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization – the first of three so-called "Kingdom" periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile Valley (the others being Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom). The term itself was coined by eighteenth-century historians and the distinction between the Old Kingdom and the Early Dynastic Period is not one which would have been recognized by Ancient Egyptians. Not only was the last king of the Early Dynastic Period related to the first two kings of the Old Kingdom, but the 'capital', the royal residence, remained at Ineb-Hedg, the Ancient Egyptian name for Memphis. The basic justification for a separation between the two periods is the revolutionary change in architecture accompanied by the effects on Egyptian society and economy of large-scale building projects. Third Dynasty Fourth Dynasty Fifth Dynasty Sixth Dynasty
Related: The Age of Taurus (The Taurean Age)
Egyptian pyramidsA view of the pyramids at Giza from the plateau to the south of the complex. From left to right, the three largest are: the Pyramid of Menkaure, the Pyramid of Khafre and the Great Pyramid of Khufu. The three smaller pyramids in the foreground are subsidiary structures associated with Menkaure's pyramid. There are 138 pyramids discovered in Egypt as of 2008. Most were built as tombs for the country's Pharaohs and their consorts during the Old and Middle Kingdom periods. The earliest known Egyptian pyramids are found at Saqqara, northwest of Memphis. The most famous Egyptian pyramids are those found at Giza, on the outskirts of Cairo. Historical development The Mastaba of Faraoun, at Saqqara By the time of the early dynastic period of Egyptian history, those with sufficient means were buried in bench-like structures known as mastabas. The most prolific pyramid-building phase coincided with the greatest degree of absolutist pharaonic rule. Pyramid symbolism Abu Rawash
Fifth Dynasty of EgyptThe Fifth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty V) is often combined with Dynasties III, IV and VI under the group title the Old Kingdom. The Fifth Dynasty dates approximately from 2494 to 2345 BC. Rulers Known rulers in the Fifth Dynasty are listed below. The pharaohs of this dynasty ruled for approximately 150 years. The Horus names and names of the Queens are taken from Dodson and Hilton. Manetho writes that the Dynasty V kings ruled from Elephantine, but archeologists have found evidence clearly showing that their palaces were still located at Ineb-hedj ("White Walls"). Userkaf How Pharaoh Userkaf founded this dynasty is not known for certain. During this dynasty, Egyptian religion made several important changes. Djedkare Isesi Amongst non-royal Egyptians of this time, Ptahhotep, vizier to Djedkare Isesi, won fame for his wisdom; The Maxims of Ptahhotep was ascribed to him by its later copyists. References Jump up ^ Shaw, Ian, ed. (2000).
AssyriaOverview map of the Ancient Near East in the 15th century BC (Middle Assyrian period), showing the core territory of Assyria with its two major cities Assur and Nineveh wedged between Babylonia downstream (to the south-east) and the states of Mitanni and Hatti upstream (to the north-west). Assyria was a major Semitic kingdom, and often empire, of the Ancient Near East, existing as an independent state for a period of approximately nineteen centuries from c. 2500 BC to 605 BC, spanning the Early Bronze Age through to the late Iron Age. For a further thirteen centuries, from the end of the 7th century BC to the mid-7th century AD, it survived as a geo-political entity, for the most part ruled by foreign powers, although a number of small Neo-Assyrian states arose at different times throughout this period. Centered on the Upper Tigris river, in northern Mesopotamia(Iraq), the Assyrians came to rule powerful empires at several times. Names Pre-history of Assyria
EnneadTerminology Egyptian mythology established multiple such groupings of deities, known as Pesedjets. The Pyramid Texts of the 5th and 6th dynasties mention the Great Pesedjet, the Lesser Pesedjet, the Dual Pesedjet, plural Pesedjets, and even the Seven Pesedjets. Some pharaohs established pesedjets that incorporated themselves among the deities. The most notable case is Seti I of the 19th dynasty, who in his temple at Redesiyah worshipped a pesedjet that combined six important deities with three deified forms of himself. The Greek term Ennead, denoting a group of nine, was coined by Greeks exploring Egypt, its culture and religion, especially after the conquest by Alexander the Great and during the subsequent rule of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. Development of the Ennead The development of the Ennead remains uncertain. Accounts of the Ennead Gallery
CreteCrete (Greek: Κρήτη, Kríti ['kriti]; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the fifth-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, and one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece.The capital and the largest city of Crete is Heraklion. It forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece while retaining its own local cultural traits (such as its own poetry, and music). Crete was once the center of the Minoan civilization (c. 2700–1420 BC), which is currently regarded as the earliest recorded civilization in Europe. Name NASA photograph of Crete The island is first referred to as Kaptara in texts from the Syrian city of Mari dating from the 18th century BC, repeated later in Neo-Assyrian records and the Bible (Caphtor). Physical geography Crete is the largest island in Greece and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. Island morphology Mountains and valleys Climate
Nut from The WikipediaExcerpt - "O my Mother Nut, stretch Yourself over me, that I may be placed among the imperishable stars which are in You." The Beginning: Water + Air -> Sky + Earth From the union of Geb and Nut came, among others, the most popular of Egyptian goddesses, Isis, the mother of Horus, whose story is central to that of her brother-husband, the resurrection god Osiris.
Bull (mythology)Stone Age Aurochs are depicted in many Paleolithic European cave paintings such as those found at Lascaux and Livernon in France. Their life force may have been thought to have magical qualities, for early carvings of the aurochs have also been found. The impressive and dangerous aurochs survived into the Iron Age in Anatolia and the Near East and was worshipped throughout that area as a sacred animal; the earliest survivals of a bull cult are at neolithic Çatalhöyük. Bronze Age Mesopotamia The Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh depicts the killing by Gilgamesh and Enkidu of the Bull of Heaven, Gugalana, first husband of Ereshkigal, as an act of defiance of the gods. Egypt Eastern Anatolia Crete The Bull was a central theme in the Minoan civilization, with bull heads and bull horns used as symbols in the Knossos palace. Indus Valley Cyprus In Cyprus, bull masks made from real skulls were worn in rites. Levant Hellas Eucharist analogies
Gods - NutThe goddess Nut was the daughter of Shu and Tefnut, and the wife of Seb, the Earth-god, and the mother of Osiris, Isis, Set and Nephthys, she was the personifaction of the heavens and the sky, and of the region wherein the clouds formed, and in fact of every portion of the reign in which the sun rose, and travelled from east to west. As a goddess of the late historical period in Egypt Nut seems to have absorbed the attributes of a number of goddesses who possessed attributes somewhat simular to those of herself, and the identies of several old nature goddesses were merged in her. At a very early period, however, the difference between the Day-sky and the Night-sky was forgotten, at least in speaking , and it is chiefly from good funeral texts that we learn that a distinction between them was made in writing. On a mummy-case at Turin the goddess appears in the form of a woman standing on the emblem of gold. The following passages from the text of Pepi I.
AnkhAnkh It represents the concept of eternal life, which is the general meaning of the symbol. The Egyptian gods are often portrayed carrying it by its loop, or bearing one in each hand, arms crossed over their chest. Origin The origin of the symbol remains a mystery to Egyptologists, and no single hypothesis has been widely accepted. It is by Egyptologists called the symbol of life. An ankh-shaped mirror case History A symbol similar to the ankh appears frequently in Minoan and Mycenaean sites. The ankh also appeared frequently in coins from ancient Cyprus and Asia Minor (particularly the city of Mallus in Cilicia). In some cases, especially with the early coinage of King Euelthon of Salamis, the letter ku, from the Cypriot syllabary, appeared within the circle ankh, representing Ku(prion) (Cypriots). David P. References Bibliography Collier, Mark and Manley, Bill. Notes Jump up ^ Collier, Mark and Manley, Bill. External links