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MicrobeWiki MicrobeWiki is a free wiki resource on microbes and microbiology, authored by students at many colleges and universities. Curated pages such as those linked to the Taxonomy Index are reviewed and updated by microbiologists at Kenyon College. Student pages authored independently, or for coursework, are not monitored further. Interested readers are encouraged to add information, after registering a free account. Featured Class: The University of Oklahoma Italian Center, taught by Tyrrell Conway. Educators: You may assign MicrobeWiki page creation and editing as projects for your students. BIOL 375 Virology, Joan L. Your students receive individual passwords. Microbial Mythology: common misconceptions and controversies in microbiology. Study Microbes presents study questions and recommended species for students to learn, based on the textbook Microbiology: An Evolving Science by Joan Slonczewski and John Foster (W. Managing Editor Daniel Barich '05 Copyright notice. Disclaimer.

Elegans wFleaBase Web BLAST page options OligoCalc: Oligonucleotide Properties Calculator Thermodynamic Calculations taking into account base stacking energy The nearest neighbor and thermodynamic calculations are done essentially as described by Breslauer et al., (1986) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.83:3746-50 (Abstract) but using the values published by Sugimoto et al., (1996) Nucl. Acids Res.24:4501-4505 (Abstract). The melting temperature calculations are based on the thermodynamic relationship between entropy, enthalpy, free energy and temperature, where The change in entropy (order or a measure of the randomness of the oligonucleotide) and enthalpy (heat released or absorbed by the oligonucleotide) are directly calculated by summing the values for nucleotide pairs obtained by Sugimoto et al., (1996) Nucleic Acids Res24:4501-4505 (Abstract). where [DNA•primer] is the concentration of the bound DNA•primer complex, [DNA] is the concentration of unbound DNA target sequence, and [primer] is the concentration of unbound primer. and solving for temperature T gives The term log10(0.050)

Mouse The National Evolutionary Synthesis Center Venter vs. Dawkins on the Tree of Life -- and Another Dawkins Whopper Another Dawkins Whopper: The Universality of the Genetic Code Since at least the publication of The Blind Watchmaker (1986), Richard Dawkins has claimed that the genetic code is universal across all organisms on earth. This is "near-conclusive proof," he writes, that every living thing on this planet "descended from a single common ancestor" (1986, p. 270) at the root of Darwin's universal tree of life. More recently, Dawkins repeated the claim in his bestseller The Greatest Show On Earth (2009, p. 409): ...the genetic code is universal, all but identical across animals, plants, fungi, bacteria, archaea and viruses. We'll come back to that last bit, which we emphasized, in a moment. The reason is interesting. OK. Simple counting question: does "one or two" equal 17? "One or two" is therefore a Whopper. "One, Two, or Seventeen, Who Cares -- These Are Only Minor Differences!" This, we imagine, is how Dawkins would object to the NCBI compilation of variant codes. There Isn't a Tree of Life