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For this entry, the previous subject matter was "Original Dictionaries of the 16th & 17th Centuries" and was linked to excellent work done at the University of Toronto. Time has marched on, links disappear. The works have matured and expanded. Our original list was--; Lion (Lyon) Gardiner's legacy--; Diary of Lion Gardiner (1635) The Gardiner Family of Long Island - genealogy (1635) GARDINER, Lion -- American engineer (1635) The Constitution of Plymouth Colony (1636) The Salem Covenant (1636) The Dedham Covenant (1636) Winthrop's Testimony (1636), the Boston Governor's account of his Christian experience. SNAPSHOT OF EARLIEST AMERICAN COURT RECORDS, including information about crimes and punishments--; The Pynchon Court Record , and earliest Springfield Court records, 11 Jan 1640/41 Massachusetts Body of Liberties (1641) Early written expression of the liberties asserted by the colonists in reaction to the oppressions of European governments. Areopagitica , John Milton (1644). Related:  American History

John Stuart Mill: On Liberty by Harvard Classics Volume 25 Copyright 1909 P.F. About the online edition. This was scanned from the 1909 edition and mechanically checked against a commercial copy of the text from CDROM. This text is in the PUBLIC DOMAIN, released September 1993. Prepared by <dell@wiretap.spies.com>. THE subject of this Essay is not the so-called Liberty of the Will, so unfortunately opposed to the misnamed doctrine of Philosophical Necessity; but Civil, or Social Liberty: the nature and limits of the power which can be legitimately exercised by society over the individual. The struggle between Liberty and Authority is the most conspicuous feature in the portions of history with which we are earliest familiar, particularly in that of Greece, Rome, and England. A time, however, came in the progress of human affairs, when men ceased to think it a necessity of nature that their governors should be an independent power, opposed in interest to themselves.

History - Colonial Authority Black slaves were prohibited from carrying firearms by a 1639 Virginia law, which prescribed 20 lashes for violations of the statute. There was one exception: with his master’s permission, a slave could bear firearms to defend against Indian raids. Massachusetts became the first colony to legalize slavery in 1641. In 1650, Connecticut legalized slavery. The Barbados slave code was set up by the English in order to provide a legal base for slavery in the Caribbean island. Slavery was legally recognized in Virginia with the passage of a 1661 fugitive slave law. A 1662 law decreed that the children of slaves took on the status of their mother, in contrast to common law, which conferred the father’s status on a child. In 1664, slavery was legalized in New York and New Jersey. In 1667 Virginia even enacted a law that decreed that baptism would not change the status of the converted, meaning that becoming Christian would not free a slave. Pennsylvania banned the importation of slaves in 1712.

National Atlas Home Page The National Map is now offering a collection of small-scale datasets that can be downloaded for free. Although the 1997-2014 Edition of the National Atlas of the United States was retired in September 2014, The National Map recognizes the importance of continuing to make a collection of the small-scale datasets, originally developed for the National Atlas, available to users. Small-scale maps have an advantage over large-scale maps when there is a need to show a large area in a single view. This makes small-scale maps an ideal solution for scientists, decision-makers, and planners needing to provide a geographical context for the research projects. The National Map collection of 197 small-scale datasets can be downloaded at small-scale data download page . Even though the 1997-2014 Edition of the National Atlas has retired, nationalmap.gov will continue to offer the Set of Dynamic Topographic Maps Illustrating Physical Features.

Battle of Cowpens: Daniel Morgan Defeats Banastre "Bloody Ban" Tarleton ,When Tarleton beheld his foe ready to receive him, he immediately reconnoitered his front; but was prevented in this by the picked marksmen who were scattered along the forward line. On spotting the cavalry, a few discharges were made by these shooters that made the British shiver in their boots at the deadly aim of the Southern riflemen. The Brits were formed up within nine hundred feet of the front of Morgan's force and, after giving a cheer and firing off some of their artillery, began pouring in an incessant crackle of musketry as they came on. Those accurate words were justified by the sight of dead and wounded, officers and enlisted men, who sank down under the deadly discharge which first met the advance of the British; but this was not enough to repel them under the stimulation of battle and the prodding of their leaders who remained standing, shouting orders to close any gaps and continue moving forward.

adamsprinciples American Independence was Achieved Upon the Principles of Christianity John Adams Without wishing to damp the Ardor of curiosity, or influence the freedom of inquiry, I will hazard a prediction, that after the most industrious and impartial Researches, the longest liver of you all, will find no Principles, Institutions, or Systems of Education, more fit, IN GENERAL to be transmitted to your Posterity, than those you have received from you[r] Ancestors. Who composed that Army of fine young Fellows that was then before my Eyes? Could my Answer be understood, by any candid Reader or Hearer, to recommend, to all the others, the general Principles, Institutions or Systems of Education of the Roman Catholicks? The general Principles, on which the Fathers Atchieved Independence, were the only Principles in which that beautiful Assembly of young Gentlemen could Unite, and these Principles only could be intended by them in their Address, or by me in my Answer.

The demographics of web search: which groups search for what? In a recent research paper, Weber and Castillo report: How does the web search behavior of "rich'' and "poor'' people differ? Do men and women tend to click on different results for the same query? What are some queries almost exclusively issued by African Americans? Here are a few details: What kind of web results would you personally want to see for the query "wagner"? And what are the "most discriminating" search queries for various demographic groups? Below the poverty line: www.unitnet.com slaker [seems to be an informal misspelling of "slacker"] kipasa [Spanish-language animation site] www.tokbox.com I had never heard of any of those. If you have a BA, the most discriminating search query is "spencer stuart executive search," followed by some other boring-sounding choices, such as "four seasons jackson hole." Whites: pulloff.com [concerns tractors and motorsport] central boiler wood furnace firewood processors midwest super cub African-Americans: For the pointer I thank David Curran.

1740 | Slave Code of South Carolina Editorial Introduction: Viewed through the looking glass of contemporary law as reflected in free and democratic societies, the 1740 Slave Code of South Carolina is most certainly an abomination. It is a stain upon British and American legal history - South Carolina was a subject Province (aka colony) of "Her Majesty" in 1740. But then, few if any countries have perfect historical records regards to slavery. This law reflected the reality that pursuant to property law as then in vogue, negro slaves were the chattel of their owners to do with as they liked; really, except for speech, no different from a pig or a horse. To some extent, it was a reaction to a slave riot that had occurred in September 9, 1739 near the Stono River (see §56), especially as news had reached South Carolina slaves that the Spanish masters in present-day Florida was not only liberating slaves that could reach their but was also giving them land (see §47). South Carolina's Negro Act certainly went a step further.

"The Bostonians paying the excise-man, or tarring and feathering." A 1774 British print depicted the tarring and feathering of Boston Commissioner of Customs John Malcolm. Tarring and feathering was a ritual of humiliation and public warning that stopped just short of serious injury. Victims included British officials such as Malcolm and American merchants who violated non-importation by importing British goods. Other forms of public humiliation included daubing victims’ homes with the contents of cesspits, or actual violence against property, such as the burning of stately homes and carriages. This anti-Patriot print showed Customs Commissioner Malcolm being attacked under the Liberty Tree by several Patriots, including a leather-aproned artisan, while the Boston Tea Party occurred in the background. In fact, the Tea Party had taken place four weeks earlier.

Battle of Cowpens: Daniel Morgan Defeats Banastre "Bloody Ban" Tarleton ,When Tarleton beheld his foe ready to receive him, he immediately reconnoitered his front; but was prevented in this by the picked marksmen who were scattered along the forward line. On spotting the cavalry, a few discharges were made by these shooters that made the British shiver in their boots at the deadly aim of the Southern riflemen. The Brits were formed up within nine hundred feet of the front of Morgan's force and, after giving a cheer and firing off some of their artillery, began pouring in an incessant crackle of musketry as they came on. Those accurate words were justified by the sight of dead and wounded, officers and enlisted men, who sank down under the deadly discharge which first met the advance of the British; but this was not enough to repel them under the stimulation of battle and the prodding of their leaders who remained standing, shouting orders to close any gaps and continue moving forward.

Land of Nod The Land of Nod (Hebrew: eretz-Nod‎, ארץ נוד) is a place in the Book of Genesis of the Hebrew Bible, located "on the east of Eden" (qidmat-‘Eden), where Cain was exiled by God after Cain had murdered his brother Abel. According to Genesis 4:16: And Cain went out from the presence of the LORD, and dwelt in the land of Nod, on the east of Eden.[1] Places named "Land of Nod"[edit] Land of Nod Road is the name of a residential road in Windham, Maine, USA,[3] and another in Headley Down, Hampshire, UK[4] Popular culture references[edit] The Land of Nod also refers to the mythical land of sleep, a pun on Land of Nod (Gen. 4:16).[5] To “go off to the land of Nod” plays with the phrase to “nod off”, meaning to go to sleep. In Bad Monkeys, a psychological thriller by Matt Ruff, the main character frequently refers to apparent contradictions in her back story as "Nod problems." In games[edit] In music[edit] Billy Thorpe closed his album Children of the Sun ... Other uses[edit] References[edit]

The WWW Virtual Library Coming of the American Revolution: First Continental Congress News of the Coercive Acts arrives in the colonies in the spring of 1774. In response to the punitive measures outlined in the Boston Port Bill, Bostonians propose to cease all trade with Britain, as set forth in the Solemn League and Covenant. Haunted by the failure of earlier commercial resistance initiatives, the other twelve colonies (as well as most towns in Massachusetts) are wary of yielding to Boston's leadership. A colony-wide congress to discuss a united course of resistance emerges as a logical alternative. Massachusetts delegates John Adams, Samuel Adams, and Thomas Cushing begin their journey to Philadelphia on 10 August, surveying the political landscape and meeting fellow delegates along their route. On 6 September, delegates are informed that General Thomas Gage has seized provincial military supplies stored in Charlestown, Massachusetts, causing quite a stir among the colonists there. The Congress does not publish any of its proceedings until after it has adjourned.

LIBERTY! . Chronicle of the Revolution . Boston 1774 Hardliners in the British government, looking for reasons to clamp down on the Bay colony, found their cause last December when the Sons of Liberty made a salty Darjeeling of Boston Harbor. 342 crates of tea were dumped into the ocean in response to a parliamentary act which imposed restrictions on the purchase of tea in the colonies. For his part, Franklin stood stoically through the ordeal, but was heard to mutter "I shall make your king a little man for this," to Wedderburn as both left the council at the end of the day. The tea party, Franklin's roasting in Parliament and now the closing of Boston harbor exemplify the hardening of positions on both sides of the Atlantic. cornwalis.html The Surrender of Cornwalis (1781) Lord Cornwallis to Sir Henry Clinton. Yorktown, October 20, 1781 I have the mortification to inform your Excellency that I have been forced to give up the posts of York and Gloucester, and to surrender the troops under my command, by capitulation on the 19th inst. as prisoners of war to the combined forces of America and France. The enemy broke ground on the night of the 30th and constructed on that night, and the two following days and nights, two redoubts, which, with some works that had belonged to our outward position, occupied a gorge between two creeks or ravines, which come from the river on each side of the town. On the night of the 6th of October they made their first parallel, extending from its right on the river to a deep ravine on the left, nearly opposite to the center of this place and embracing our whole left at the distance of six hundred yards.

Related:  The New World