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Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology
Just give me the FAQ The next few paragraphs provide a brief introduction to the core concepts of nanotechnology, followed by links to further reading. Manufactured products are made from atoms. If we rearrange the atoms in coal we can make diamond. If we rearrange the atoms in sand (and add a few other trace elements) we can make computer chips. If we rearrange the atoms in dirt, water and air we can make potatoes. Todays manufacturing methods are very crude at the molecular level. It's like trying to make things out of LEGO blocks with boxing gloves on your hands. In the future, nanotechnology (more specifically, molecular nanotechnology or MNT) will let us take off the boxing gloves. "Nanotechnology" has become something of a buzzword and is applied to many products and technologies that are often largely unrelated to molecular nanotechnology. Nanotechnology will let us: Achieve the ultimate in precision: almost every atom in exactly the right place. Some Frequently Asked Questions Books Related:  Population Issues

nano tech 2013 International Nanotechnology Exhibition & Conference Science Encyclopedia What 11 Billion People Mean for the Planet | World Population by LiveScience Staff | November 19, 2013 07:49am ET Credit: Crowd image via Shutterstock. The human population is exploding. Earlier this year, the United Nations released a new report that said the global population was on pace to reach 11 billion people by the end of the century — a full 800 million more people than were expected by 2100 (with a range between 9 million and 13 million), and a whopping 4 billion more than call Earth home today. All of those people mean a lot of extra mouths to feed, more strain on water supplies, a lot more trash and human waste to put somewhere and an increased threat of a major deadly global pandemic, among other problems. As part of a weeklong series, LiveScience is taking a look at what impact a population of 11 billion might have on our Pale Blue Dot, and in what ways humans might need to adapt.

Nanotechnology Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is the manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale. The earliest, widespread description of nanotechnology[1][2] referred to the particular technological goal of precisely manipulating atoms and molecules for fabrication of macroscale products, also now referred to as molecular nanotechnology. A more generalized description of nanotechnology was subsequently established by the National Nanotechnology Initiative, which defines nanotechnology as the manipulation of matter with at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometers. This definition reflects the fact that quantum mechanical effects are important at this quantum-realm scale, and so the definition shifted from a particular technological goal to a research category inclusive of all types of research and technologies that deal with the special properties of matter that occur below the given size threshold. Origins[edit] Comparison of Nanomaterials Sizes

Flash Physics Engine Box2DFlashAS3 1.4.2 Material Remains: The Perpetual Challenge of Garbage Editor’s note: The following is the introduction to a special e-publication called Conquering Garbage (click the link to see a table of contents). Published this month, the collection draws articles from the archives of Scientific American. Garbage is one of the oldest and most vexing of human creations. In early times, small-scale societies frequently relied on natural scavengers to make their discards disappear, but when trash accumulations grew too troublesome even for that convenient symbiosis, the entire community often pulled up stakes and moved. Ancient cities dealt with trash by building atop their detritus over the centuries (to the delight of today’s archaeologists). This collection of articles from the archives of Scientific American reveals the thoughtful, inventive and sometimes unlikely approaches that waste management has inspired across the past century and a half. Some constants remain. See also:

Nanotechnology is coming by Ralph C. Merkle, Principal Fellow, Zyvex This is the English original of an article translated into German and published in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung of Monday, September 11 2000 on page 55. In the coming decades nanotechnology could make a supercomputer so small it could barely be seen in a light microscope. Not long ago, such a forecast would have been ridiculed. At its heart, the coming revolution in manufacturing is a continuation of trends that date back decades and even centuries. The remarkably low manufacturing cost comes from self replication. While nanotechnology does propose to use self replication, it does not propose to copy living systems. Now that the feasibility of nanotechnology is widely accepted, we enter the next phase of the public discussion: what policies should we adopt to best deal with it? Self replication is at the heart of many policy discussions. Consider, for example, the difference between a bird and an airplane. Further reading:

Universe Sandbox | interactive space simulator Fossil Fuel Use Continues to Rise Despite concerted global efforts to reduce carbon emissions through the expansion of clean and renewable energy resources, fossil fuels continued to dominate the global energy sector in 2012, according to new figures released yesterday by the Worldwatch Institute. Coal, natural gas and oil accounted for 87 percent of the world's primary energy consumption last year, the group reported in a new "Vital Signs Online" report. "The relative weight of these energy sources keeps shifting, although only slightly," states the report by researchers Milena Gonzalez and Matt Lucky, members of the Worldwatch Institute's climate and energy team. While the U.S. boom in shale gas helped push the fossil fuel's share of total global energy consumption from 23.8 to 23.9 percent, coal also increased its share, from 29.7 to 29.9 percent, as demand for coal-fired electricity remained strong across much of the developing world, including China and India, and parts of Europe.

Carbon Nanotubes Transmission electron microscopy of carbon nanotubes: a warning. Carbon nanotube science and technology Carbon nanotubes are molecular-scale tubes of graphitic carbon with outstanding properties. They are among the stiffest and strongest fibres known, and have remarkable electronic properties and many other unique characteristics. For these reasons they have attracted huge academic and industrial interest, with thousands of papers on nanotubes being published every year. Commercial applications have been rather slow to develop, however, primarily because of the high production costs of the best quality nanotubes. The current huge interest in carbon nanotubes is a direct consequence of the synthesis of buckminsterfullerene, C60 , and other fullerenes, in 1985. A transmission electron micrograph of some multiwalled nanotubes is shown in the figure (left). Structure The bonding in carbon nanotubes is sp, with each atom joined to three neighbours, as in graphite. Synthesis Properties Nanohorns

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