Union of South Africa Union of South Africa Red Ensign (1912–1928) Union of South Africa Blue Ensign (1912–1928) The Union of South Africa is the historic predecessor to the present-day Republic of South Africa. It came into being on 31 May 1910 with the unification of four previously separate British colonies: Cape Colony, Natal Colony, Transvaal Colony and Orange River Colony. Following World War I, the Union of South Africa was granted the administration of the German South-West Africa colony as a League of Nations mandate and it became treated in most respects as if it were another province of the Union. The Union of South Africa was founded as a dominion of the British Empire. Constitution Main features The provinces of the Union Capitals Relationship to the Crown During the course of the Union the Royal Styles of the Monarch were modified, with Elizabeth II being the last reigning Queen of South Africa. Languages Final days of the South Africa Act and legacy Segregation
Duke Ellington Edward Kennedy "Duke" Ellington (April 29, 1899 – May 24, 1974) was an American composer, pianist and bandleader of jazz orchestras. His career spanned over 50 years, leading his orchestra from 1923 until he died. Though widely considered to have been a pivotal figure in the history of jazz, Ellington himself embraced the phrase "beyond category" as a "liberating principle", and referred his music to the more general category of "American Music", rather than to a musical genre such as "jazz". Born in Washington, D.C., he was based in New York City from the mid-1920s, and gained a national profile through his orchestra's appearances at the Cotton Club. In the 1930s they toured in Europe. After 1941, Ellington collaborated with composer-arranger-pianist Billy Strayhorn, whom he called his "writing and arranging companion". With Strayhorn, he composed many extended compositions, or 'suites', as well as further shorter pieces. Early life Music career "East St.
Richard I of England Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 6 July 1189 until his death. He also ruled as Duke of Normandy (as Richard IV), Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Lord of Cyprus, Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Count of Nantes, and Overlord of Brittany at various times during the same period. He was the third of five sons of King Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine. He was known as Richard Cœur de Lion, or mainly Richard the Lionheart, even before his accession, because of his reputation as a great military leader and warrior. The Muslims called him Melek-Ric (King Richard) or Malek al-Inkitar (King of England). Early life and accession in Aquitaine Family and youth Richard I's great seal of 1189 Richard was born on 8 September 1157, probably at Beaumont Palace, in Oxford, England. Richard was said to be very attractive; his hair was between red and blond, and he was light-eyed with a pale complexion. Revolt against Henry II
Ray Charles Rolling Stone ranked Charles number ten on their list of "100 Greatest Artists of All Time" in 2004, and number two on their November 2008 list of "100 Greatest Singers of All Time". In honoring Charles, Billy Joel noted: "This may sound like sacrilege, but I think Ray Charles was more important than Elvis Presley." Early life Ray Charles Robinson was the son of Aretha (William) Robinson, a sharecropper, and Bailey Robinson, a railroad repair man, mechanic and handyman. Aretha was a devout Christian and the family attended the New Shiloh Baptist Church. When Ray was an infant, his family moved from Albany, Georgia, where he was born, to the poor black community on the western side of Greenville, Florida. In his early years, Charles showed a curiosity for mechanical things and he often watched the neighborhood men working on their cars and farm machinery. His musical curiosity was sparked at Mr. Career Early career Atlantic Records
Murder of James Bulger "James Bulger" redirects here. For the organized crime figure, see Whitey Bulger. James Patrick Bulger (16 March 1990 – 12 February 1993) was a boy from Kirkby, Merseyside, England, who was murdered on 12 February 1993, at the age of two. He was abducted, tortured and murdered by two ten-year-old boys, Robert Thompson (born 23 August 1982) and Jon Venables (born 13 August 1982). Bulger disappeared from the New Strand Shopping Centre in Bootle, while accompanying his mother. His mutilated body was found on a railway line two-and-a-half miles (4 km) away in Walton, Liverpool, two days after his murder. Thompson and Venables were charged on 20 February 1993 with Bulger's abduction and murder. The pair were found guilty on 24 November 1993, making them the youngest convicted murderers in modern English history. The case has prompted widespread debate on the issue of how to handle young offenders when they are sentenced or released from custody. Murder Arrest
Sammy Davis, Jr. After reuniting with Sinatra and Dean Martin in 1987, Davis toured with them and Liza Minnelli internationally, before he died of throat cancer in 1990. He died in debt to the Internal Revenue Service, and his estate was the subject of legal battles. Davis was awarded the Spingarn Medal by the NAACP and was nominated for a Golden Globe and an Emmy Award for his television performances. Early life Samuel George Davis, Jr. was born in the Harlem section of Manhattan in New York City, as an only child, to Sammy Davis, Sr., an African-American entertainer, and Elvera Sanchez, a tap dancer of Afro-Cuban descent. Davis's parents were vaudeville dancers. Will Mastin Trio: (L–R) Sammy Davis Sr., Sammy Davis Jr., and Will Mastin Davis learned to dance from his father and his "uncle" Will Mastin, who led the dance troupe his father worked for. Career Davis performing in 1966. On December 11, 1967, NBC broadcast a musical-variety special entitled Movin' With Nancy. WikiMiniAtlas
Charles Ng After a lengthy dispute between Canada and the United States, Ng was extradited to California and was convicted of 11 murders. He is currently on death row at San Quentin State Prison. Early life Ng was born in Hong Kong, the son of a wealthy Chinese executive and his wife. Ng moved to the United States, where he entered Notre Dame de Namur University in Belmont, California. U.S. Although not a United States citizen, Ng became a Marine with the help, he said, of a recruiting sergeant, and false documents attesting to his birth in Bloomington, Indiana. After less than a year of service he was arrested by military police for the theft of heavy weaponry and machine guns from MCAS Kaneohe Bay in Hawaii. Murders After his release Ng immediately contacted Lake, who was renting a remote cabin near Wilseyville, California, and invited Ng to join him. Lake had custom-built a dungeon next to the cabin. Further investigation led police to the cabin. Murder trial
Louis Armstrong Louis Armstrong (August 4, 1901 – July 6, 1971), nicknamed Satchmo or Pops, was an American jazz trumpeter, singer, and an influential figure in jazz music. Coming to prominence in the 1920s as an "inventive" trumpet and cornet player, Armstrong was a foundational influence in jazz, shifting the focus of the music from collective improvisation to solo performance. With his instantly recognizable gravelly voice, Armstrong was also an influential singer, demonstrating great dexterity as an improviser, bending the lyrics and melody of a song for expressive purposes. He was also skilled at scat singing (vocalizing using sounds and syllables instead of actual lyrics). Renowned for his charismatic stage presence and voice almost as much as for his trumpet-playing, Armstrong's influence extends well beyond jazz music, and by the end of his career in the 1960s, he was widely regarded as a profound influence on popular music in general. Early life Career
Leonard Lake Leonard Lake (October 29, 1945 – June 6, 1985) was an American serial killer. He often used the alias Leonard Hill. The crimes he committed with Charles Ng became known after Lake committed suicide by taking a cyanide pill shortly after being arrested for a firearms offense. Videotapes found at his house gave evidence of the pair having kidnapped and killed numerous persons; they are believed to have killed from 11 to 25 individuals. Life Lake was born in San Francisco, California. In 1965 at age 19, Lake joined the Marine Corps and served two tours of duty in the Vietnam War as a radar operator. Lake was obsessed with the hippie lifestyle in San Francisco and increasingly with the idea of an impending nuclear holocaust. Lake's other obsession was with guns – part of his survivalist paranoia. Murders Lake invited Ng to his new place: a remote cabin near Wilseyville, California which he rented from Claralyn Balazs. Lake had custom-built a dungeon next to the cabin.
Miles Davis Miles Dewey Davis III (May 26, 1926 – September 28, 1991) was an American jazz musician, trumpeter, bandleader, and composer. Widely considered one of the most influential musicians of the 20th century, Miles Davis was, with his musical groups, at the forefront of several major developments in jazz music, including bebop, cool jazz, hard bop, modal jazz, and jazz fusion. Miles Davis was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2006. Davis was noted as "one of the key figures in the history of jazz". On October 7, 2008, his 1959 album Kind of Blue received its fourth platinum certification from the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), for shipments of at least four million copies in the United States. On December 15, 2009, the U.S. Life and career Early life (1926–44) Miles Dewey Davis was born on May 26, 1926, to an affluent African American family in Alton, Illinois. In 1944, the Billy Eckstine band visited East St.
French Wars of Religion The exact number of wars and their respective dates are the subject of continued debate by historians; some assert that the Edict of Nantes in 1598 concluded the wars, although a resurgence of rebellious activity following this leads some to believe the Peace of Alais in 1629 is the actual conclusion. However, the Massacre of Vassy in 1562 is agreed to begin the Wars of Religion and the Edict of Nantes at least ended this series of conflicts. During this time, complex diplomatic negotiations and agreements of peace were followed by renewed conflict and power struggles. At the conclusion of the conflict in 1598, Huguenots were granted substantial rights and freedoms by the Edict of Nantes, though it did not end hostility towards them. The wars weakened the authority of the monarchy, already fragile under the rule of Francis II and then Charles IX, though it later reaffirmed its role under Henry IV. Background Growth of Calvinism Affair of the Placards 1562–70