Theory and History of the Noosphere The Noosphere - literally, “mind-sphere” or Earth’s mental sheathe - is a word and concept jointly coined by Édouard Le Roy, French philosopher and student of Henri Bergson, Jesuit paleontologist Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, and Russian geochemist, Vladimir Vernadsky, in Paris, 1926. At the root of the primary definition of noosphere is a dual perception: that life on Earth is a unity constituting a whole system known as the biosphere; and that the mind or consciousness of life - the Earth’s thinking layer - constitutes a unity that is discontinuous but coextensive with the entire system of life on Earth, inclusive of its inorganic support systems. A third critical premise arising from the first two is that the noosphere defines the inevitable next stage of terrestrial evolution, which will subsume and transform the biosphere. How this evolutionary shift might occur is at the crux of the experiment, Noosphere II. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Overview | Gaia Theory The Gaia Paradigm While reading on about the science of Gaia Theory – below and throughout this website – consider the term “Gaia Paradigm.” This phrase refers to the confluence of the best available scientific understanding of Earth as a living system with cultural understandings of human society as a seamless continuum of that system. The “Gaia Paradigm” employs the powerful metaphor of “Gaia” to take the perspective of human beings as part of a living system. What is Gaia Theory? Pick up a newspaper or listen to the news and you’ll quickly see that our understanding of the Earth and our relationship to it has never mattered more. Overall, the Gaia Theory is a compelling new way of understanding life on our planet. Understanding Gaia Theory The Gaia Theory posits that the organic and inorganic components of Planet Earth have evolved together as a single living, self-regulating system. The Gaia theory was developed in the late 1960’s by Dr. Martin Ogle on Gaia Theory
5 Very Smart People Who Think Artificial Intelligence Could Bring the Apocalypse On the list of doomsday scenarios that could wipe out the human race, super-smart killer robots rate pretty high in the public consciousness. And in scientific circles, a growing number of artificial intelligence experts agree that humans will eventually create an artificial intelligence that can think beyond our own capacities. This moment, called the singularity, could create a utopia in which robots automate common forms of labor and humans relax amid bountiful resources. Or it could lead the artificial intelligence, or AI, to exterminate any creatures it views as competitors for control of the Earth—that would be us. Stephen Hawking “The development of full artificial intelligence could spell the end of the human race,” the world-renowned physicist told the BBC. Elon Musk Known for his businesses on the cutting edge of tech, such as Tesla and SpaceX, Musk is no fan of AI. Nick Bostrom James Barrat Vernor Vinge
Earth immune system The Earth immune system is a controversial proposal, claimed to be a consequence of the Gaia hypothesis. The Gaia hypothesis holds that the entire earth may be considered a single organism (Gaia). As a self-maintaining organism, Earth would have an immune system of some sort in order to maintain its health. Some proponents of this speculative concept, for example, hold that humankind can be considered an "infection" of Gaia, and that AIDS is an attempt by this immune system to reject the infection. "Cancer" might be a more accurate term, as humans evolved within Gaia, and are not external invaders. James Lovelock's book "The Revenge of Gaia" suggests that Gaia has many mechanisms for eliminating civilizations that do harm through greenhouse gas emissions and global warming, but suggests that with increasing heat being received from the sun, Gaia's ability to "bounce back" as it did after the Permian and Cretaceous extinction events, may be increasingly compromised. See also
The Superorganism vs. the Selfish Gene - How Natural Selection Works | HowStuffWorks Evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins wrote a book called "The Selfish Gene" in the 1970s. Dawkins' book reframed evolution by pointing out that natural selection favors the passing on of genes, not the organism itself. Once an organism has successfully reproduced, natural selection doesn't care what happens after. This explains why certain strange traits continue to exist -- traits that seem to cause harm to the organism but benefit the genes. Since the publication of "The Selfish Gene," most biologists agree that Dawkins' ideas explain a great deal about natural selection, but they don't answer everything. One theory revolves around kinship. Biologists are also exploring a concept known as the superorganism.
Perfect harmony: The Gaia theory | Science Earth is a perfect planet for life but, according to Gaia theory, this is no coincidence. From the moment life first appeared on Earth it has worked hard to make Earth a more comfortable place to live. Gaia theory suggests that the Earth and its natural cycles can be thought of like a living organism. When one natural cycle starts to go out of kilter other cycles work to bring it back, continually optimising the conditions for life on Earth. Named after the Greek Earth goddess, Gaia, the theory was developed in the 1960s by scientist Dr James Lovelock. Initially, Gaia theory was ignored, and then later ridiculed by scientists such as Richard Dawkins and Stephen J Gould. In its early years Earth's atmosphere was mostly carbon dioxide - the product of multiple volcanic burps. Gaia also helps to explain how the oceans are kept in balance. These processes are not thought to be conscious ones, or to favour any one life form over another.
Cognitive Dissonance Understanding this experiment sheds a brilliant light on the dark world of our inner motivations. The ground-breaking social psychological experiment of Festinger and Carlsmith (1959) provides a central insight into the stories we tell ourselves about why we think and behave the way we do. The experiment is filled with ingenious deception so the best way to understand it is to imagine you are taking part. So sit back, relax and travel back. The time is 1959 and you are an undergraduate student at Stanford University… As part of your course you agree to take part in an experiment on ‘measures of performance’. Little do you know, the experiment will actually become a classic in social psychology. The set-up Once in the lab you are told the experiment is about how your expectations affect the actual experience of a task. Perhaps you wonder why you’re being told all this, but nevertheless it makes it seem a bit more exciting now that you know some of the mechanics behind the experiment.
Geophysiology Geophysiology (Geo, earth + physiology, the study of living bodies) is the study of interaction among living organisms on the Earth operating under the hypothesis that the Earth itself acts as a single living organism. Frederic Clements (1874-1945) of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, who popularized the idea of vegetation climax also introduced the idea of physiology to ecology, considering the interlocking natures of plants and animals as metabolic processes within a single superorganism. The British biologist, Arthur Tansey (1871-1955), who introduced the term ecosystem, also considered the possibility that plant communities could be considered to be boundary-less quasi-organisms, although he never extended his ideas to a planetary scale. G. Eugene Odum believed that homeostasis and stability in ecosystems was a result of evolutionary processes, and Howard Odum (his brother) extended this work to include thermodynamic effects in producing ecological "steady states". See also
The Seven Shamanic Levels of Consciousness Preface Although formerly only known by shamans, I present this knowledge now to spiritual seekers and for the benefit of mankind.In 1989 I met a Hungarian Shaman, Joska Soos, in Antwerp, Belgium, who helped people with his private "shamanizations" and classes. Over the years I learned a lot, with new information about shamanism I had never read about in any literature. Among it was the system of seven levels of consciousness. Although he did not talk that much about it, it seemed such a useful system to me that I went further into it myself. I began to understand that some of my spiritual experiences in my past corresponded with those levels of consciousness. Table of Contents Introduction 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The Wheels of Consciousness Introduction What makes man different from animals is that he is aware of himself. 1. Awake, dear one, awake! You just made the first big step in your spiritual growth. 2. Mankind is one,and all men are alikein that which concerns their creation. 3. 4. 5.
Autopoiesis 3D representation of a living cell during the process of mitosis, example of an autopoietic system. The original definition can be found in Autopoiesis and Cognition: the Realization of the Living (1st edition 1973, 2nd 1980): Page xvii: - It was in these circumstances...in which he analyzed Don Quixote's dilemma of whether to follow the path of arms (praxis, action) or the path of letters (poiesis, creation, production), I understood for the first time the power of the word 'poiesis' and invented the word that we needed: autopoiesis. Meaning Autopoiesis was originally presented as a system description that was said to define and explain the nature of living systems. An autopoietic system is to be contrasted with an allopoietic system, such as a car factory, which uses raw materials (components) to generate a car (an organized structure) which is something other than itself (the factory). Relation to complexity Relation to cognition Relation to consciousness
5 Minute Introduction • What is Buddhism? Buddhism is a religion to about 300 million people around the world. The word comes from 'budhi', 'to awaken'. It has its origins about 2,500 years ago when Siddhartha Gotama, known as the Buddha, was himself awakened (enlightened) at the age of 35. • Is Buddhism a Religion? To many, Buddhism goes beyond religion and is more of a philosophy or 'way of life'. (1) to lead a moral life, (2) to be mindful and aware of thoughts and actions, and (3) to develop wisdom and understanding. • How Can Buddhism Help Me? Buddhism explains a purpose to life, it explains apparent injustice and inequality around the world, and it provides a code of practice or way of life that leads to true happiness. • Why is Buddhism Becoming Popular? Buddhism is becoming popular in western countries for a number of reasons, The first good reason is Buddhism has answers to many of the problems in modern materialistic societies. • Who Was the Buddha? • Was the Buddha a God? • Do Buddhists Worship Idols?
Gaia hypothesis The study of planetary habitability is partly based upon extrapolation from knowledge of the Earth's conditions, as the Earth is the only planet currently known to harbour life The Gaia hypothesis, also known as Gaia theory or Gaia principle, proposes that organisms interact with their inorganic surroundings on Earth to form a self-regulating, complex system that contributes to maintaining the conditions for life on the planet. Topics of interest include how the biosphere and the evolution of life forms affect the stability of global temperature, ocean salinity, oxygen in the atmosphere and other environmental variables that affect the habitability of Earth. Introduction Less accepted versions of the hypothesis claim that changes in the biosphere are brought about through the coordination of living organisms and maintain those conditions through homeostasis. Details Regulation of the salinity in the oceans Regulation of oxygen in the atmosphere Processing of CO2