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Mitosis and Meiosis - Comparison Chart, Video and Pictures

Mitosis and Meiosis - Comparison Chart, Video and Pictures
Cells divide and reproduce in two ways: mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis is a process of cell division that results in two genetically identical daughter cells developing from a single parent cell. Meiosis, on the other hand, is the division of a germ cell involving two fissions of the nucleus and giving rise to four gametes, or sex cells, each possessing half the number of chromosomes of the original cell. Mitosis is used by single-celled organisms to reproduce; it is also used for the organic growth of tissues, fibers, and membranes. Meiosis is found in sexual reproduction of organisms. Differences in Purpose Though both types of cell division are found in many animals, plants, and fungi, mitosis is more common than meiosis and has a wider variety of functions. Meiosis is a more specific type of cell division (of germ cells, in particular) that results in gametes, either eggs or sperm, that contain half of the chromosomes found in a parent cell. Meiosis and Genetic Diversity Meiosis I vs. Related:  Biology0009 Understand molecular and cellular life processes.Reproduction

Active and Passive Transport Active and passive transport are biological processes that move oxygen, water and nutrients into cells and remove waste products. Active transport requires chemical energy because it is the movement of biochemicals from areas of lower concentration to areas of higher concentration. On the other hand, passive trasport moves biochemicals from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration; so it does not require energy. Process There are two types of active transport: primary and secondary. Example of primary active transport, where energy from hydrolysis of ATP is directly coupled to the movement of a specific substance across a membrane independent of any other species. There are four main types of passive transport: osmosis, diffusion, facilitated diffusion and filtration. Three different mechanisms for passive transport in bilayer membranes. Video explaining the differences Here's a good video explaining the process of active and passive transport: Examples References

GCSE Bitesize: Growth Asexual Reproduction vs Sexual Reproduction - Difference and Comparison | Diffen Moon Jellies has two main stages in its life cycle – polyp stage (asexual reproduction) & medusa stage (sexual reproduction) Types There are several different types of asexual reproduction. These include budding, where the offspring grows out of the body of the parent, and gemmules, where the parent releases a specialized mass of cells that will become a new individual. There are two types of sexual reproduction. Process Asexual reproduction is reproduction that occurs without any interaction between two different members of a species. Cell division in asexual and sexual reproduction Sexual reproduction is reproduction that requires a male and a female of the same species to contribute genetic material. Examples Asexual reproduction is used by many plants, e.g. spider plants, bacteria, hydra, yeast, and jellyfish. Sexual reproduction is used by most mammals, fish, reptiles, birds and insects. Advantages and Disadvantages References

Plant Cell vs Animal Cell Plant and animal cells have several differences and similarities. For example, animal cells do not have a cell wall or chloroplasts but plant cells do. Animal cells are round and irregular in shape while plant cells have fixed, rectangular shapes. Plant and animal cells are both eukaryotic cells, so they have several features in common, such as the presence of a cell membrane, and cell organelles, like the nucleus, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. Chloroplasts Plants are autotrophs; they produce energy from sunlight through the process of photosynthesis, for which they use cell organelles called chloroplasts. Shape Another difference between plant cells and animal cells is that animal cells are round whereas plant cells are rectangular. Cell Wall Plant cells have a rigid cell wall that surrounds the cell membrane. Vacuoles Shape and size of vacuoles Animal cells have one or more small vacuoles whereas plant cells have one large central vacuole that can take up to 90% of cell volume.

mDNA replication zoom Cell Function: Meiosis What are the big ideas here? There are two cell divisions. Mitosis has one division and meiosis has two divisions. You still have to remember PMATI, but now you do it twice. You also need to remember that four cells are created where there was originally one. That's four (4) cells with half of the amount of DNA needed by a cell. Meiosis happens when it's time to reproduce an organism. As we said, meiosis happens when it's time to reproduce. That second division divides the number of chromosomes in half. MEIOSIS I: This is basically like the PMATI of a regular mitosis. This crossing over is an exchange of genes. MEIOSIS II: In Prophase II the DNA that remains in the cell begins to condense and form short chromosomes. Telophase II shows the DNA completely pulled to the sides and the cell membrane begins to pinch. Or search the sites for a specific topic.

Eukaryotic Cell vs Prokaryotic Cell The distinction between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is considered to be the most important distinction among groups of organisms. Eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bound organelles, such as the nucleus, while prokaryotic cells do not. Differences in cellular structure of prokaryotes and eukaryotes include the presence of mitochondria and chloroplasts, the cell wall, and the structure of chromosomal DNA. Prokaryotes were the only form of life on Earth for millions of years until more complicated eukaryotic cells came into being through the process of evolution. Definition of eukaryotes and prokaryotes Prokaryotes (pro-KAR-ee-ot-es) (from Old Greek pro- before + karyon nut or kernel, referring to the cell nucleus, + suffix -otos, pl. Eukaryotes (IPA: [juːˈkæɹɪɒt]) are organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. Differences Between Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells References Share this comparison:

How Cells Obtain Energy from Food - Molecular Biology of the Cell - NCBI Bookshelf Cell Function: Mitosis Eventually cells need to duplicate. There are two main methods of replication, mitosis and meiosis. This tutorial will talk about mitosis. The big idea to remember is that mitosis is the simple duplication of a cell and all of its parts. It duplicates its DNA and the two new cells (daughter cells) have the same pieces and genetic code. Two identical copies come from one original. Beyond the idea that two identical cells are created, there are certain steps in the process. We suppose it would be good to know what happens during those phases. Metaphase: Now all of the pieces are aligning themselves for the big split. Anaphase: Here we go! Telophase: Now the division is finishing up. Interphase: This is the normal state of a cell.

DNA vs RNA DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is like a blueprint of biological guidelines that a living organism must follow to exist and remain functional. RNA, or ribonucleic acid, helps carry out this blueprint's guidelines. Of the two, RNA is more versatile than DNA, capable of performing numerous, diverse tasks in an organism, but DNA is more stable and holds more complex information for longer periods of time. Structure DNA and RNA are nucleic acids. Nucleic acids are long biological macromolecules that consist of smaller molecules called nucleotides. Structural differences between DNA and RNA. DNA is found in the nucleus of a cell (nuclear DNA) and in mitochondria (mitochondrial DNA). During transcription, RNA, a single-stranded, linear molecule, is formed. RNA folding in on itself into a hairpin loop. In both molecules, the nucleobases are attached to their sugar-phosphate backbone. In RNA, adenine and uracil (not thymine) link together, while cytosine still links to guanine. Function Recent News

Unknown Mitosis: An Interactive Animation This animation demonstrates the stages of mitosis in an animal cell. Use the control buttons along the bottom to run the complete animation. Click on any intermediate stage (for example, Anaphase), and see a representative still frame. Interphase: Cells may appear inactive during this stage, but they are quite the opposite. This is the longest period of the complete cell cycle during which DNA replicates, the centrioles divide, and proteins are actively produced. For a complete description of the events during Interphase, read about the Cell Cycle. Prophase: During this first mitotic stage, the nucleolus fades and chromatin (replicated DNA and associated proteins) condenses into chromosomes. Prometaphase: In this stage the nuclear envelope breaks down so there is no longer a recognizable nucleus. Metaphase: Tension applied by the spindle fibers aligns all chromosomes in one plane at the center of the cell. Cancer cells reproduce relatively quickly in culture.

Replication vs Transcription Cell division is essential for an organism to grow, but when a cell divides it must replicate the DNA in its genome so that the two daughter cells have the same genetic information as their parent. DNA provides a simple mechanism for replication. In transcription, or RNA synthesis, the codons of a gene are copied into messenger RNA by RNA polymerase. As opposed to DNA replication, transcription results in an RNA complement that includes uracil (U) in all instances where thymine (T) would have occurred in a DNA complement. Share this comparison: If you read this far, you should follow us:

structure of a typical animal cell png