Bible History & Archaeology Published by the Biblical Archaeology Society | Biblical Archaeology Review Preface to 'Jesus' - a Blending of the Gospels Jesus Christ is undoubtedly the single most influential figure in the history of Western civilization. His influence touches the daily life of every individual. Yet, most know little about him. More often than not, what they do know has been altered by myth and colored by misconception. The story of his birth is familiar through numberless recounting at Christmas time, as are the details of his death through annual Easter celebrations, but his life and his teachings are little known and less understood. The Jesus portrayed in the four accounts in the gospels is unlike the commonly held conceptions of him, and anyone expecting to read in these pages of the "gentle Jesus, meek and mild" will be caught by surprise. There are other obstacles. It was for precisely these reasons that this book, Jesus, was prepared. It should be understood that what is presented here is not nor does it purport to be another translation of the gospels: it is a synthesis of the gospels rendered in a paraphrase.
First Council of Nicaea The First Council of Nicaea (/naɪ'si:ə/; Greek: Νίκαια /'ni:kaɪja/ Turkish: Iznik) was a council of Christian bishops convened in Nicaea in Bithynia by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325. This first ecumenical council was the first effort to attain consensus in the church through an assembly representing all of Christendom. Its main accomplishments were settlement of the Christological issue of the nature of the Son of God and his relationship to God the Father, the construction of the first part of the Creed of Nicaea, establishing uniform observance of the date of Easter, and promulgation of early canon law. Overview Eastern Orthodox icon depicting the First Council of Nicaea The First Council of Nicaea was the first ecumenical council of the Church. Another result of the council was an agreement on when to celebrate Easter, the most important feast of the ecclesiastical calendar, decreed in an epistle to the Church of Alexandria in which is simply stated:
The Corinthians in Corinthians Figure Analysis The Corinthians sure get lots of screen time in the Bible, but just who were they? And why does Paul spend so much time writing letters to their little neck of the woods? The Corinth of Old Ancient Corinth was a lovely little town, which was located in the southern part of Greece on the Isthmus of Corinth. See, Corinth was pretty cosmopolitan at the time (for a place that didn't have flushing toilets, that is): Corinth was home to major seaports, which meant its exports of bronze and terra cotta always sold well.It was a major manufacturing and commercial hub of the ancient world. Paul's Arrival in Greece So Paul hits Corinth and establishes a church pretty quickly. Not quite. Sin's Really Got a Hold on Them The Corinthians get a bad wrap for being a bunch of ancient sinners and sex freaks. "Fornicators, idolaters, adulterers, male prostitutes, sodomites, thieves, the greedy, drunkards, revilers, robbers […] this is what some of you used to be" (1 Corinthians 6:9-11). Wrong:
Gospel of John The Gospel of John (also referred to as the Gospel According to John, the Fourth Gospel, or simply John) is one of the four canonical gospels in the Christian Bible. In the New Testament it traditionally appears fourth, after the synoptic gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke. John begins with the witness and affirmation of John the Baptist and concludes with the death, burial, resurrection, and post-resurrection appearances of Jesus. Chapter 21 states that the book derives from the testimony of the "disciple whom Jesus loved" and early church tradition identified him as John the Apostle, one of Jesus' Twelve Apostles. Raymond E. Composition Authorship The gospel identifies its author as "the disciple whom Jesus loved." The earliest manuscripts to contain the beginning of the gospel (Papyrus 66 and Papyrus 75), dating from around the year 200, entitle the gospel "The Gospel according to John". Sources Order of material Signs Gospel Discourses Inspiration
Gospel of Luke The Gospel According to Luke (Greek: Τὸ κατὰ Λουκᾶν εὐαγγέλιον, to kata Loukan euangelion), commonly shortened to the Gospel of Luke or simply Luke, is the third and longest of the four Gospels. This synoptic gospel is an account of the life and ministry of Jesus of Nazareth. It details his story from the events of his birth to his Ascension. According to the preface, the purpose of Luke is to write an historical account, while bringing out the theological significance of the history. Nevertheless, ancient authors emphasized plausibility rather than truth and mixed intentional fiction in with their biography; the claim that the evangelist wrote with historical intentions does not guarantee the preservation of historical facts. Most modern critical scholarship concludes that Luke used the Gospel of Mark for his chronology and a hypothetical sayings source Q document for many of Jesus's teachings. Title Composition Synoptic Gospels Sources L source
Gospel of Mark The Gospel According to Mark (Greek: τὸ κατὰ Μᾶρκον εὐαγγέλιον, to kata Markon euangelion), the second book of the New Testament, is one of the four canonical gospels and the three synoptic gospels. It was traditionally thought to be an epitome (summary) of Matthew, which accounts for its place as the second gospel in the Bible, but most contemporary scholars now regard it as the earliest of the gospels. Most modern scholars reject the tradition which ascribes it to Mark the Evangelist, the companion of Peter, and regard it as the work of an unknown author working with various sources including collections of miracle stories, controversy stories, parables, and a passion narrative. Composition and setting Composition The two-source hypothesis: Most scholars agree that Mark was the first of the gospels to be composed, and that the authors of Matthew and Luke used it plus a second document called the Q source when composing their own gospels. Setting Structure 1.
Gospel of Matthew The Gospel According to Matthew (Greek: κατὰ Ματθαῖον εὐαγγέλιον, kata Matthaion euangelion, τὸ εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Ματθαῖον, to euangelion kata Matthaion) (Gospel of Matthew or simply Matthew) is one of the four canonical gospels, one of the three synoptic gospels, and the first book of the New Testament. The narrative tells how the Messiah, Jesus, rejected by Israel, finally sends the disciples to preach his Gospel to the whole world. The Gospel of Matthew is generally believed to have been composed between 70 and 110, with most scholars preferring the period 80–90; a pre-70 date remains a minority view, but has been strongly supported. The anonymous author was probably a highly educated Jew, intimately familiar with the technical aspects of Jewish law, and the disciple Matthew was probably honored within his circle. Composition and setting Evangelist Mathäus und der Engel by Rembrandt Composition Setting Structure and content Structure Theology
The Gnosis Archive: Resources on Gnosticism and Gnostic Tradition What is Gnosticism? Many visitors have requested some basic introductory material explaining Gnosticism. To meet this need we offer these "places to start": two short articles, The Gnostic World View: A Brief Summary of Gnosticism and What is a Gnostic?; and an audio lectures (mp3 format) on the Gnostic concept of Christ: The Misunderstood Redeemer. Meditations Take a moment to reflect on a brief meditation and reading from the Gnostic scriptures, selected from this week's Gnostic liturgy. The Gnostic Society Library Visit the Gnostic Society Library, a comprehensive library of Gnostic scriptures, which includies the complete Nag Hammadi library of Gnostic texts and other ancient writings and documents relating to Gnostic tradition. Documentary films: The Lost Gospels—a ninety minute long BBC documentary (first released in 2008). Nag Hammadi Library collection updated: The Nag Hammadi Library collection received a major update in May 2015. Gnosis and C. "C.G. C. C. Genesis and Gnosis
Evidence for God from Science Time The flow of sand in an hourglass can be used to keep track of elapsed time. It also concretely represents the present as being between the past and the future. Time is a dimension in which events can be ordered from the past through the present into the future, and also the measure of durations of events and the intervals between them. Time has long been a major subject of study in religion, philosophy, and science, but defining it in a manner applicable to all fields without circularity has consistently eluded scholars. Nevertheless, diverse fields such as business, industry, sports, the sciences, and the performing arts all incorporate some notion of time into their respective measuring systems. Some simple, relatively uncontroversial definitions of time include "time is what clocks measure" and "time is what keeps everything from happening at once". Temporal measurement and history World time