APA Formatting and Style Guide Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing). Contributors:Joshua M. Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell KeckLast Edited: 2013-09-18 10:33:51 There are two common types of papers written in fields using APA Style: the literature review and the experimental report. Literature review A literature review is a critical summary of what the scientific literature says about your specific topic or question. A literature review typically contains the following sections: Experimental report Other papers
Annotated Bibliographies Summary: This handout provides information about annotated bibliographies in MLA, APA, and CMS. Contributors:Geoff Stacks, Erin Karper, Dana Bisignani, Allen BrizeeLast Edited: 2013-03-10 11:25:28 Definitions A bibliography is a list of sources (books, journals, Web sites, periodicals, etc.) one has used for researching a topic. Bibliographies are sometimes called "References" or "Works Cited" depending on the style format you are using. An annotation is a summary and/or evaluation. Summarize: Some annotations merely summarize the source. Your annotated bibliography may include some of these, all of these, or even others. Why should I write an annotated bibliography? To learn about your topic: Writing an annotated bibliography is excellent preparation for a research project. To help other researchers: Extensive and scholarly annotated bibliographies are sometimes published. Format The annotations: The annotations for each source are written in paragraph form.
Writing Workshops for Graduate Students Summary: The resources available in this section provide the user with the materials that they would need to hold a writing workshop for graduate students. While these resources do not target a particular kind of writing (e.g., writing for courses, writing for publication, or writing thesis and dissertations), it does provide the needed structure act as a sort of graduate student writing workshop-in-a-box. Contributors:Gracemarie MikeLast Edited: 2014-06-10 09:07:11 About This Handout The literature review, whether embedded in an introduction or standing as an independent section, is often one of the most difficult sections to compose in academic writing. Organizing Literature Reviews Because literature reviews convey so much information in a condensed space, it is crucial to organize your review in a way that helps readers make sense of the studies you are reporting on. Questions for Revision 1) Is the literature review organized chronologically or by topic? Showing the Gaps Works Consulted
Peer-reviewed articles | Library & information Access | San Diego State University What is a scholarly journal | Comparing journals & magazines | Finding peer-reviewed journals What is a scholarly journal? Your instructor has asked you to find an article in a scholarly (or professional or refereed or peer-reviewed) journal. Scholarly journals differ from popular magazines and trade journals/magazines in a number of ways. (See "Comparison Chart" below.) A primary difference between scholarly journals and other types of journals and magazines is that articles in these journals undergo a "peer review" process before they are published. Peer review is the process by which an author's peers, recognized researchers in the field, read and evaluate a paper (article) submitted for publication and recommend whether the paper should be published, revised, or rejected.Peer review is a widely accepted indicator of quality scholarship in a discipline or field. Comparing Characteristics of Journals/Magazines Finding articles in scholarly/peer-reviewed journals
Reading and Analyzing Research Papers Objective: Read a research paper and identify its contributions and limitations. Summarize the paper's contributions and limitations clearly, succinctly, and articulately. You can return to the review later and quickly refresh your memory about what the paper was about. Reading: What to Look For While reading a research paper, look for (and mark) the following key things: problem they're solving (how large is the problem? In addition, think about any limitations you see to their approach. After reading the paper, you'll summarize your findings in a review. Review Content Your review should contain the following information. Statement of the Problem/Goals In one sentence in your own words, state succinctly the overall problem being addressed in this paper. Technical Approach In a few sentences in your own words, what is the key insight of this group's approach to tackling the stated problem? Discussion/Critique How did the researchers evaluate their efforts? Submission
Social Work Literature Review Guidelines Summary: This handout provides an overview of how to write literature reviews in the field of social work. It provides a list of suggestions and examples. Contributors:Dana Lynn DriscollLast Edited: 2013-10-26 09:25:22 Literature reviews are designed to do two things: 1) give your readers an overview of sources you have explored while researching a particular topic or idea and 2) demonstrate how your research fits into the larger field of study, in this case, social work. Unlike annotated bibliographies which are lists of references arranged alphabetically that include the bibliographic citation and a paragraph summary and critique for each source, literature reviews can be incorporated into a research paper or manuscript. Below you will find general guidelines to consider when developing a literature review in the field of social work. 1. 2. 3. For example: You should look for the strengths and weaknesses of how the author conducted the study. 4. 5. 6. 7.
Tips for writing your first scientific literature review article The finished product There were many points at which I felt overwhelmed by the task and didn’t see a clear path to finishing the article on time. I tried to reassure myself by remembering that I had been rather good at writing term papers in college; but this was a larger task and one with the potential for having an impact on someone, somewhere, sometime who wanted to learn about caspase substrates. In the end, I finished by the deadline (well, plus one two-week extension the editor agreed to grant me) and was very happy with the product and with all I had learned about caspase substrates, about the scientific literature and about the review-writing process. Yet I estimate that the next time I undertake a task like this, I’ll be able to do it in half the time. I’ll end by mentioning that, for me, this was one of the most rewarding experiences I’ve had during my time as a Ph.D. student. 1.
Analysis of the structure of original research papers: an aid to writing original papers for publication. List of academic databases and search engines Wikipedia list article This page contains a representative list of notable databases and search engines useful in an academic setting for finding and accessing articles in academic journals, institutional repositories, archives, or other collections of scientific and other articles. Databases and search engines differ substantially in terms of coverage and retrieval qualities. Users need to account for qualities and limitations of databases and search engines, especially those searching systematically for records such as in systematic reviews or meta-analyses. As the distinction between a database and a search engine is unclear for these complex document retrieval systems, see: the general list of search engines for all-purpose search engines that can be used for academic purposesthe article about bibliographic databases for information about databases giving bibliographic information about finding books and journal articles. See also References
Getting Started on Your Literature Review Here you can find a short guide and a few suggestions for postgraduate research students on how to get started on a literature review. How could I write my literature review? When writing your literature review, it is essential to remember that it will only be completed when your thesis is almost finished, because new research and publications are constantly being produced. At some stage you will have to be happy with what you have and leave it at that; however, you will be continually adding to your review and will probably rewrite it a number of times. It is always invaluable to read the literature reviews in other theses. These will provide possible structural models for your own literature review. It is important that your literature review has a logical and coherent structure, and that this structure is clearly apparent to the reader. Possible ways of structuring a literature review Chronological organisation The 'Classic' studies organisation Topical or thematic organisation
How to Analyze Figures From Research Papers How to Analyze Figures from Research Papers Biology 601 fall 2006 Easton/Wadsworth. firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com. In order to effectively read research papers, one must be able to interpret the figures. What to Look for in Figures Figures usually represent the results of one or more experiments. A Short Checklist 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. In Class Procedure 1. 2. 3. 4. Individual Student Summaries Each student will be responsible for answering the final summary questions. Stanford Literature Review What is it? A critical literature review is one of the most important activities in the process of research and is usually included as part of the introduction to a research report or thesis. The aim of a literature review is to show that the writer insightfully evaluated the existing published literature on a particular topic. A good literature review should do the following: Define the scope of the problem Place the current study in a historical perspective Show the relationship between previous research and the current research thesis Avoid unnecessary duplication Evaluate different research methodologies and emphasize key studies Compare and contrast different research findings on a topic while grouping together authors with similar conclusions and noting areas in which authors are in disagreement Report gaps in the previous research and how the current study can add to the literature in general Conclude by summarizing what the literature says How does one begin? C.
How to Write a (Barely) Passing Paper As someone who had to write a lot (as an undergrad and grad student), please allow me to commend you on your points. I do have a few few additions and nitpicks, though, but allow me to foreword those by saying my MA is in European history, so not everything I say is universal. (Also note that this response will be quite lengthy.) 1. 2. 4. 7. 8. 9. 11. The first book I had to buy for grad school was The Chicago Manual of Style.
Critical Evaluation of a Published Paper Bonine & Oh ECOL 437 Fall 2006 (modified from Pasch and Bonine 2003) Critical Evaluation of a Published Paper During the course of the semester we will be reading, presenting, “writing”, and critically evaluating journal articles (We will write our term papers as if we were writing a journal article, but with a modified Methods section and without the Results section). Below is a checklist that follows closely the format of a scientific report, conventionally divided into 6 sections. Abstract The abstract serves as a summary of the paper, presenting the purpose, scope, and major findings. a) Is the abstract intelligible? b) …accurately describe the objectives & results of paper? c) …include data not presented in the paper? d) …include material that cannot be substantiated (conclusions unsupported by results)? Introduction The introduction serves to logically present the background information/provide context for the study. What is the question (research/scientific hypothesis)? the study? Methods