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International Phonetic Alphabet

International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)[note 1] is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association as a standardized representation of the sounds of oral language.[1] The IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and teachers, linguists, speech-language pathologists, singers, actors, constructed language creators, and translators.[2][3] History[edit] Since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. After major revisions and expansions in 1900 and 1932, the IPA remained unchanged until the IPA Kiel Convention in 1989. Extensions to the IPA for speech pathology were created in 1990 and officially adopted by the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association in 1994.[11] Description[edit] A chart of the full International Phonetic Alphabet, expanded and re-organized from the official chart. Letterforms[edit] Symbols and sounds[edit] Brackets and phonemes[edit]

Related:  sound/IPA symbolsСимволы (текстовые знаки)Language systemscharsetWords

International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) Origin The IPA was first published in 1888 by the Association Phonétique Internationale (International Phonetic Association), a group of French language teachers founded by Paul Passy. The aim of the organisation was to devise a system for transcribing the sounds of speech which was independent of any particular language and applicable to all languages. A phonetic script for English created in 1847 by Isaac Pitman and Henry Ellis was used as a model for the IPA. Uses 5 examples of how the languages we speak can affect the way we think Keith Chen (TED Talk: Could your language affect your ability to save money?) might be an economist, but he wants to talk about language. For instance, he points out, in Chinese, saying “this is my uncle” is not as straightforward as you might think. In Chinese, you have no choice but to encode more information about said uncle. The language requires that you denote the side the uncle is on, whether he’s related by marriage or birth and, if it’s your father’s brother, whether he’s older or younger.

Trail: Internationalization (The Java™ Tutorials) The lessons in this trail teach you how to internationalize Java applications. Internationalized applications are easy to tailor to the customs and languages of end users around the world. Note: This tutorial trail covers core internationalization functionality, which is the foundation required by additional features provided for desktop, enterprise, and mobile applications. Everybody in Almost Every Language Says “Huh”? HUH?! Listen to one end of a phone conversation, and you’ll probably hear a rattle of ah’s, um’s and mm-hm’s. Our speech is brimming with these fillers, yet linguistic researchers haven’t paid much attention to them until now. New research by Mark Dingemanse and colleagues at the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, in Nijmegen, the Netherlands, has uncovered a surprisingly important role for an interjection long dismissed as one of language’s second-class citizens: the humble huh?, a sort of voiced question mark slipped in when you don’t understand something.

English language, alphabet and pronunciation English is a West Germanic language related to Scots, Dutch, Frisian and German. with a significant amount of vocabulary from Old Norse, Norman French, Latin and Greek, and loanwords from many other languages. Approximately 341 million people speak English as a native language and a further 267 million speak it as a second language in over 104 countries including the UK, Ireland, USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, American Samoa, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Botswana, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, and the Cook Islands. A brief history of English Old English English evolved from the Germanic languages brought to Britain by the Angles, Saxons, Jutes and other Germanic tribes from about the 5th Century AD.

Epsilon In essence, the uppercase form of epsilon looks identical to Latin E. The lowercase version has two typographical variants, both inherited from medieval Greek handwriting. One, the most common in modern typography and inherited from medieval minuscule, looks like a reversed "3". The other, also known as lunate or uncial epsilon and inherited from earlier uncial writing,[1][2] looks like a semicircle crossed by a horizontal bar. Testosterone changes brain structures in female-to-male transsexuals Brain imaging shows that testosterone therapy given as part of sex reassignment changes the brain structures and the pathway associated with speech and verbal fluency. This result supports research that women in general may deal with speech and interaction differently than men. The sex hormone testosterone exerts a substantial influence on human behaviour and cognition. Previous studies have shown that testosterone has a particular influence on verbal fluency.

C I18N FAQ: Déclaration du codage de caractères utilisé dans un fichier CSS Using @charset As mentioned above, you should only use this when the style sheet and the calling HTML file are in different encodings. It is important to understand that, although the @charset declaration looks like a CSS at-rule, it is not parsed as such for detection of the character encoding. Rhyming slang Rhyming slang is a form of phrase construction in the English language and is especially prevalent in dialectal English from the East End of London; hence the alternative name, Cockney rhyming slang. The construction involves replacing a common word with a rhyming phrase of two or three words and then, in almost all cases, omitting the secondary rhyming word (which is thereafter implied), in a process called hemiteleia,[1][2] making the origin and meaning of the phrase elusive to listeners not in the know.[3] A frequently cited example[by whom?] involves the replacement of "stairs" with the rhyming phrase "apples and pears".

Paul Meier Dialect Services - IPA charts - dialects - dialect books - phonetics - IPA - phonetics - vowels (If unavailable here, please go to Professor Armstrong’s site, where you will find them duplicated.) The following interactive charts of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) were designed by Eric Armstrong of York University, Toronto, Canada; and voiced by Paul Meier, of the University of Kansas, in Lawrence, Kansas, USA. They are provided as an aid to students of dialects and phonetics. If you are studying dialects with Paul Meier Dialect Services books or booklets, and want to hear one of the “signature sounds” in isolation, or in comparison with other sounds, you may do so using the charts here. Vowels, consonants, ingressives, suprasegmentals, intonation, diacritics, ejectives, implosives, diphthongs, and clicks are demonstrated.

Currency sign A currency symbol is a graphic symbol used as a shorthand for a currency's name, especially in reference to amounts of money. They typically employ the first letter or character of the currency, sometimes with minor changes such as ligatures or overlaid vertical or horizontal bars. Today, ISO 4217 codes are used instead of currency symbols for most official purposes,[citation needed] though currency symbols may be in common use in many other contexts. Few currencies in the world have no shorthand symbol at all. Although many former currency symbols were rendered obsolete by the adoption of the euro, having a new and unique currency symbol – implementation of which requires the adoption of new unicode and type formats – has now become a status symbol for international currencies.

Chinese-English bilinguals are 'automatic' translators New research into how the bilingual brain processes two very different languages has revealed that bilinguals' native language directly influences their comprehension of their second language. The innovative study by researchers in The University of Nottingham's School of Psychology set out to explore whether Chinese-English bilinguals translate English words automatically into Chinese without being aware of this process. More than half of the world's population speaks more than one language but up to now it has not been clear how they interact if the two languages are very different, unlike some pairs of European languages which share the same alphabetical characters and even words. The research, to be published in the journal Psychological Science, finds that Chinese people who are fluent in English translate English words into Chinese automatically and quickly, without thinking about it.