background preloader

International Phonetic Alphabet

International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)[note 1] is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association as a standardized representation of the sounds of oral language.[1] The IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and teachers, linguists, speech-language pathologists, singers, actors, constructed language creators, and translators.[2][3] History[edit] Since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. After major revisions and expansions in 1900 and 1932, the IPA remained unchanged until the IPA Kiel Convention in 1989. Extensions to the IPA for speech pathology were created in 1990 and officially adopted by the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association in 1994.[11] Description[edit] A chart of the full International Phonetic Alphabet, expanded and re-organized from the official chart. Letterforms[edit] Symbols and sounds[edit] Brackets and phonemes[edit]

IPA character picker 11 Click on characters to create text in the box below, then copy & paste to your content. p b t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ ʔ ʰ m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ ɴ ʙ ⱱ r ɾ ɽ ʀ ɸ β f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ h ɦ ʋ ɹ ɻ j ɰ ɬ ɮ l ɭ ʎ ʟ ɫ ƥ ɓ ƭ ɗ ƈ ʄ ƙ ɠ ʠ ʛ ǁ ʘ ǀ ǃ ǂ i y ɨ ʉ ɯ u ɪ ʏ ʊ e ø ɘ ɵ ɤ o ə ɛ œ ɜ ɞ ʌ ɔ æ ɐ a ɶ ɑ ɒ ̋ ˥ ̌ ˩˥ ́ ˦ ̂ ˥˩ ̄ ˧ ᷄ ˦˥ ̀ ˨ ᷅ ˩˨ ̏ ˩ ᷈ ˧˦˧ ↓ ↗ ↑ ↘ ʍ w ɥ ʜ ʢ ʡ ɕ ʑ ɧ ɺ ʦ ʣ ʧ ʤ ʨ ʥ ɚ ɝ / [ ] ː ˑ ̆ ˈ ˌ | ‖ . ‿ φ ω σ μ ̥ ̊ ̬ ̤ ̰ ͓ ̼ ̺ ̪ ̻ ̹ ̜ ̟ ̠ ̈ ̽ ̩ ̯ ˞ ̮ ̙ ̘ ̞ ̝ ̴ ̃ ̨ ͊ ͋ ̚ ʼ ˭ ⁿ ˡ ˤ ˠ ʲ ʷ ͡ ͜ Font list: Custom font: Size: Rows: Add codepoint: Autofocus: On Notes: You must have JavaScript enabled. You can also add codepoints and escapes via the "Add codepoint" field (hit return to add to the output field). About the chart I also added a number of additional diacritics and symbols requested by phoneticians using the chart. NOTE: You can use phonetic terminology when searching (eg. All text is output in Unicode normalisation form NFC by default. Alternative views Other commands Useful URIs

Blink (book) Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking is the second book by Malcolm Gladwell. It presents in popular science format research from psychology and behavioral economics on the adaptive unconscious; mental processes that work rapidly and automatically from relatively little information. It considers both the strengths of the adaptive unconscious, for example in expert judgment, and its pitfalls such as stereotypes. Summary[edit] The author describes the main subject of his book as "thin-slicing": our ability to gauge what is really important from a very narrow period of experience. We do that by "thin-slicing," using limited information to come to our conclusion. Gladwell gives a wide range of examples of thin-slicing in contexts such as gambling, speed dating, tennis, military war games, the movies, malpractice suits, popular music, and predicting divorce. The book argues that intuitive judgment is developed by experience, training, and knowledge. Research and examples[edit]

Acoustic Phonetics: Formants Formants For the purposes of distinguishing vowels from each other, we are more interested in the frequency response curves (indicating the preferred resonating frequencies of the vocal tract) rather than in the raw spectrum of the wave. Each of the preferred resonanting frequencies of the vocal tract (each bump in the frequency response curve) is known as a formant . They are usually referred to as F1, F2, F3, etc. For example, the formants for a schwa as spoken by an adult male whose vocal tract is 17 centimetres long: (People whose vocal tracts are longer or shorter than 17 cm will have different frequencies for these formants, but the pattern of 1x-3x-5x will be the same.) By changing the vocal tract away from a perfect tube, you can change the frequencies that it prefers to vibrate at. Some vowel formants for Canadian English Relating formants to articulation The positions for the first two formants of a vowel aren't random. This is just a mirror image of our familiar vowel chart!

File:IPA chart (C)2005.pdf Money laundering Placing 'dirty' money in a service company, where it is layered with legitimate income, and then integrated into the flow of money is a common form of money laundering Money laundering is the process whereby the proceeds of crime are transformed into ostensibly legitimate money or other assets.[1] However in a number of legal and regulatory system the term money laundering has become conflated with other forms of financial crime, and sometimes used more generally to include misuse of the financial system, including terrorism financing, tax evasion and evading of international sanctions. Most anti-money laundering laws openly conflate money laundering (which is concerned with source of funds) with terrorism financing (which is concerned with destination of funds) when regulating the financial system.[2] Money obtained from certain crimes, such as extortion, insider trading, prostitution, drug trafficking, illegal gambling or tax evasion is "dirty". Methods[edit] Enforcement[edit]

Technology and Phonological Awareness Volume 43, No. 3, Spring 2007 Terence W. Cavanaugh In this month's feature, Dr. Cavanaugh shares numerous sites suitable for use in reading instruction, focusing on phonological awareness and related skills for a variety of levels of emergent and beginning readers. The most effective way to teach children to read is through instruction that includes a combination of methods (NIH 2000). Figure 1: Phonological awareness continuum. One of the key components in building a student’s phonics skills is phonological awareness (Adams 1990; Share & Stanovich 1995). Letter Sound Associations There are web sites that can be used by student that focus on letter applications and sounds. Phonemic Manipulation Some sites provide interactive instruction for phonemic awareness through activities that relate to phoneme manipulation, using letter sounds and phonics rules (see Figure 2). Table 1: Sample activity sites that support phonemic awareness. Pronunciation & Rhyming Read-Aloud Books References Terence W.

国際音声記号 国際音声記号(こくさいおんせいきごう、IPA: International Phonetic Alphabet)は、あらゆる言語の音声を文字で表記すべく、国際音声学会が定めた音声記号である。国際音声字母(こくさいおんせいじぼ)、万国音標文字(ばんこくおんぴょうもじ)とも言う。 歴史[編集] IPAの一覧表 国際音声記号は1888年に最初の版が制定されて以後以下のように何度かの改訂を経て今日に至っている。 1900年の改訂では、制定時の規則に入っていなかったアラビア語などの非ヨーロッパの言語の音をカバーするために拡張された。 用法[編集] 一方、角括弧 [ ] で挟んで書かれたIPAは精密表記(英: narrow transcription)と呼ばれる。 文字一覧表[編集] 子音(肺臓気流)[編集] 子音のうち、肺臓気流によって作られる音声を表す文字。 IPAの表に、喉頭蓋音、側面はじき音を足したもの。 子音(非肺臓気流)[編集] 子音のうち、非肺臓気流によって作られる音声を表す文字。 その他の記号[編集] 破擦音と二重調音[編集] 必要ならば、破擦音と二重調音は2記号をダブルインバーテッドブリーブで結ぶことでも表し得る。 k͡p t͡s 注: "Arial Unicode MS" 等の一部のフォントでは、バグがあるために巧く表示されない。 母音[編集] 母音を表す文字。 記号が2つ並んでいるものは、右が円唇、左が非円唇。 補助記号[編集] 下に伸びた記号の場合、その上に置いても良い: 例) [ŋ̊] 超分節要素[編集] 超分節要素を表す記号。 声調と語アクセント[編集] 声調記号で、声調と語アクセントを表す記号。 問題点と批判およびそれへの対応[編集] IPAに関しては、ラテン文字を基盤としていることから、文字帝国主義の一類型であるラテン文字帝国主義を促進する効果があるとしてその中立性を批判する声がある。 これらに対しては、IPAに問題点があるにせよ、現実にはこれ以外に普及した共通の表音文字がなく、またIPAを使用しても音声表記、音素表記双方で致命的な問題点が生じることはないため、新しい音声の発見に応じた微修正は必要不可欠だが、IPA自体の廃棄や作り直しは必要ないという意見が主流派の言語学者の間でのコンセンサスである。 脚注[編集] 参考文献[編集] 関連項目[編集] 外部リンク[編集]

Why the Arabic World Turned Away from Science Hillel Ofek Contemporary Islam is not known for its engagement in the modern scientific project. But it is heir to a legendary “Golden Age” of Arabic science frequently invoked by commentators hoping to make Muslims and Westerners more respectful and understanding of each other. President Obama, for instance, in his June 4, 2009 speech in Cairo, praised Muslims for their historical scientific and intellectual contributions to civilization: It was Islam that carried the light of learning through so many centuries, paving the way for Europe’s Renaissance and Enlightenment. Such tributes to the Arab world’s era of scientific achievement are generally made in service of a broader political point, as they usually precede discussion of the region’s contemporary problems. Today, however, the spirit of science in the Muslim world is as dry as the desert. Comparative metrics on the Arab world tell the same story. Original Contributions of Arabic Science Why Arabic Science Thrived What happened?

Acoustic and auditory phonetics: the adaptive design of speech sound systems 3. Vocal-tract cavity properties and formant frequencies A key concept in acoustic phonetics is the ‘formant’. It refers to the acoustic realization of an underlying resonance peak in the VT filter function and is illustrated by the envelope peaks in the output spectra of each of the vowels represented in figure 1. A formant is characterized by a centre frequency, a relative amplitude and a bandwidth. For the acoustic description of vowel sounds, the most important parameters are the centre frequencies of the lowest three or four formants, referred to as the ‘formant pattern’ collectively. To understand the relationship between the size and shape of the vocal tract and the formant pattern, consider first the vowel / / (the top-most vowel represented in figure 1). Figure 2 shows the standing pressure waves for the three lowest resonance frequencies (500, 1500 and 2500 Hz) of / /, given a VT length, l, of 17.5 cm, a typical adult male value. / in figure 1. Figure 2 4. Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5

Offshore bank An offshore bank is a bank located outside the country of residence of the depositor, typically in a low tax jurisdiction (or tax haven) that provides financial and legal advantages. These advantages typically include: While the term originates from the Channel Islands being "offshore" from the United Kingdom, and most offshore banks are located in island nations to this day, the term is used figuratively to refer to such banks regardless of location, including Swiss banks and those of other landlocked nations such as Luxembourg and Andorra. Defenders of offshore banking have criticised these attempts at regulation. They claim the process is prompted not by security and financial concerns but by the desire of domestic banks and tax agencies to access the money held in offshore accounts. Advantages of offshore banking[edit] Offshore banks can sometimes provide access to politically and economically stable jurisdictions. Disadvantages of offshore banking[edit] Banking services[edit]

THe Sound System of Language The English /h/ only occurs at the beginning of the syllable, as in hot or perhaps, never at the end, despite its occasional presence in the spelling. That is to say, there are no English words pronounced as toh /t‘ œ h/ and perpah /p‘ pa:h/. The absence of final /h/ seems obvious to an English speaker. English-speaking science fiction writers have the problem of inventing names for aliens from other worlds that seem both plausible and exotic. The English consonant combinations that exceed two consonant CC combinations are very restricted. While the end of the English syllable can go up to four consonants (CCCC) these also consist of only a few combinations, usually ending in /s/, for the simple reason that English grammar adds /s/ to the end of words to show number of nouns (books) and verbs (sits) and possession of nouns (John’s), leading to /lfq s/ in twelfths, /mpts/ in prompts, and /ksts/ in texts. How do people cope with combinations that are not found in their own language? 6.

Chargeback Chargeback is the return of funds to a consumer, mainly used in the United States, forcibly initiated by the issuing bank of the instrument used by a consumer to settle a debt. Specifically, it is the reversal of a prior outbound transfer of funds from a consumer's bank account, line of credit, or credit card. Chargebacks also occur in the distribution industry. This type of chargeback occurs when the supplier sells a product at a higher price to the distributor than the price they have set with the end user. United States overview[edit] The chargeback mechanism exists primarily for consumer protection. A consumer may initiate a chargeback by contacting their issuing bank, and filing a substantiated complaint regarding one or more debit items on their statement. Chargeback in the United Kingdom[edit] Reason codes[edit] One of the most common reasons for a chargeback is a fraudulent transaction. Chargebacks can also result from a customer dispute over statement credits. See also[edit]