Marcel Duchamp Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Pour les articles homonymes, voir Duchamp. Marcel Duchamp Marcel Duchamp (né à Blainville-Crevon, le et mort à Neuilly-sur-Seine, le ) est un peintre, plasticien, homme de lettres français, naturalisé américain en 1955. Considéré par beaucoup comme l'artiste le plus important du XXe siècle, il est qualifié également par André Breton d'« homme le plus intelligent du siècle ». Inventeur des ready-made, sa démarche artistique exerce une influence majeure sur les différents courants de l'art contemporain. Biographie[modifier | modifier le code] Origines familiales[modifier | modifier le code] « J'ai eu une vie absolument merveilleuse. » — Marcel Duchamp Né dans la Seine-Maritime, Henri Robert Marcel Duchamp est le fils du notaire de Blainville-Crevon, Justin Isidore Duchamp (dit « Eugène »), et de Marie Caroline Lucie née Nicolle, musicienne accomplie. Débuts : tableaux et dessins[modifier | modifier le code] Il fut un excellent joueur d'échecs.
Dmitri Shostakovich Dmitri Shostakovich in 1942 Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich (Russian: Дмитрий Дмитриевич Шостакович , tr. Dmitrij Dmitrievič Šostakovič, pronounced [ˈdmʲitrʲɪj ˈdmʲitrʲɪɪvʲɪt͡ɕ ʂəstɐˈkovʲɪt͡ɕ]; 25 September 1906 – 9 August 1975) was a Soviet Russian composer and pianist and a prominent figure of 20th-century music. Shostakovich achieved fame in the Soviet Union under the patronage of Soviet chief of staff Mikhail Tukhachevsky, but later had a complex and difficult relationship with the government. Biography Early life Birthplace of Shostakovich (now School No. 267). Born at 2 Podolskaya Ulitsa in Saint Petersburg, Russia, Shostakovich was the second of three children of Dmitri Boleslavovich Shostakovich and Sofiya Vasilievna Kokoulina. Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich was a child prodigy as a pianist and composer, his talent becoming apparent after he began piano lessons with his mother at the age of nine. Shostakovich in 1925 Early career First denunciation Lev A.
Duck Sex, Aesthetic Evolution, and the Origin of Beauty For example, if we think about a plant and the parts of the plant, trying to explain why they are the way they are, if we examine the roots we could come up with a complete description of the roots and their function and their form in terms of their physical function in the soil. They're grabbing into the substrate, they're absorbing water and minerals, they're helping the plant anchor itself. They might even be interacting with fungus and bacteria in the soil. We come up with a complete description of the plants and we have a theory for this, and that theory is natural selection. However, if we think about the flower, many parts of the flower, including its color, the shape of its petals, its fragrance, function through the perceptions of other animals. That is, the bee or the hummingbird comes along and regards the flower, asks itself, "Do I want to forage at that flower now or today?" We will never be able to nail it down exactly as we do many scientific questions.
The world’s slowest and longest piece of music: John Cage’s As S As Slow As Possible was composed by John Cage, arguably the most influential American composer of the 20th century. It was originally a 20-minute piece for piano, but later expanded by some crazy group of theologians, musicologists, philosophers, composers and organists to an unbelieveable 639 years. Yes, that means the song will take 639 years from start to finish. It was first played sometime in 2003, on a church organ in Halberstadt, Germany. The first 3 notes will last for more than a year! Needless to say, it won’t be of much interest if you’d actually sit down and listen to it. In fact, for the first 17 months, all that was heard was the sound of “the organ’s bellows being inflated”. Question: But why 639? SourceThe BBC, Feb 2003
Art moderne Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. L'appellation d'art moderne désigne une période de l'histoire de l'art qui est initiée par Édouard Manet et les peintres impressionnistes dans les années 1870 et s'achève au milieu des années 1950, notamment avec la naissance du pop art. L'art moderne se caractérise par une rupture avec les canons de la figuration de l'art classique. La notion d'« art moderne »[modifier | modifier le code] Dans Le Peintre de la vie moderne, Baudelaire trouve la beauté dans la rue et il la voit changeante, mobile ; chez l'artiste moderne, il salue l'aptitude à dégager du transitoire du quotidien l'éternel de la beauté. D'un point de vue institutionnel, l'émergence de la modernité ébranle l'Académie dans son pouvoir d'autoriser ou non l'entrée d'une œuvre au Salon. Les peintres « hors-académie » refuseront finalement d'être exposés à côté des peintres académiques. Naissance de l'« art moderne »[modifier | modifier le code]
Chroma key Today's practicality of green-screen compositing is demonstrated by Iman Crosson in a self-produced YouTube video.Top panel: A frame of Crosson in full-motion video as shot in his own living room.Bottom panel: Frame in the final version, in which Crosson, impersonating Barack Obama, "appears" in the White House's East Room. Chroma key compositing, or chroma keying, is a special effects / post-production technique for compositing (layering) two images or video streams together based on color hues (chroma range). The technique has been used heavily in many fields to remove a background from the subject of a photo or video – particularly the newscasting, motion picture and videogame industries. A color range in the top layer is made transparent, revealing another image behind. The chroma keying technique is commonly used in video production and post-production. History Process Processing a green backdrop Virtual television studio with green-screen technique. Clothing
Béla Bartók Béla Viktor János Bartók (/ˈbɑrtɒk/; Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈbeːlɒ ˈbɒrtoːk]; March 25, 1881 – September 26, 1945) was a Hungarian composer and pianist. He is considered one of the most important composers of the 20th century; he and Liszt are regarded as Hungary's greatest composers (Gillies 2001). Through his collection and analytical study of folk music, he was one of the founders of comparative musicology, which later became ethnomusicology. Biography Childhood and early years (1881–98) Béla Bartók was born in the small Banatian town of Nagyszentmiklós in the Kingdom of Hungary, Austria-Hungary (since 1920 Sânnicolau Mare, Romania) on March 25, 1881. Béla displayed notable musical talent very early in life: according to his mother, he could distinguish between different dance rhythms that she played on the piano before he learned to speak in complete sentences (Gillies 1990, 6). Early musical career (1899–1908) Middle years and career (1909–39) Opera
The Holy Mountain (1973 film) La montaña sagrada (The Holy Mountain, reissued as The Sacred Mountain) is a 1973 Mexican-American avant-garde drama film directed by Alejandro Jodorowsky, who also participated as an actor, composer, set designer and costume designer on the film. The film was produced by Beatles manager Allen Klein of ABKCO Music and Records, after Jodorowsky scored an underground phenomenon with El Topo and the acclaim of both John Lennon and George Harrison (Lennon and Yoko Ono put up production money). It was shown at various international film festivals in 1973, including Cannes, and limited screenings in New York and San Francisco. After a confrontation with the alchemist, the thief defecates into a container. The excrement is transformed into gold by the alchemist, who proclaims: "You are excrement. You can change yourself into gold". The thief is introduced to seven people who will accompany him on his journey; they are said to be the most powerful but mortal, like himself.
Art contemporain Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. L'expression « art contemporain » désigne de façon générale et globale l'ensemble des œuvres produites depuis 1945 à nos jours, et ce quels qu'en soient le style et la pratique esthétique. Dans cette classification périodique, l'art contemporain succède à l'art moderne (1850-1945). Cette désignation s'applique également aux musées, institutions, galeries, foires, salons, biennales montrant les œuvres de cette période. Qu'est-ce que l'art contemporain ? La notion de « contemporanéité » est d’abord une notion historique. « Contemporanéité » signifie aussi « simultanéité ». De nouvelles références permettent de définir ce qu'est la méthode contemporaine. De surcroît, l'expression « manière contemporaine » est aujourd'hui utilisée pour des artistes encore vivants et actifs ou pouvant encore l'être, ce qui dans ce cas placerait l'origine de la méthode contemporaine dans les années 1960, avec le pop art, Fluxus, les happenings ou l'art vidéo.
Fundamental interaction Fundamental interactions, also called fundamental forces or interactive forces, are modeled in fundamental physics as patterns of relations in physical systems, evolving over time, that appear not reducible to relations among entities more basic. Four fundamental interactions are conventionally recognized: gravitational, electromagnetic, strong nuclear, and weak nuclear. Everyday phenomena of human experience are mediated via gravitation and electromagnetism. The strong interaction, synthesizing chemical elements via nuclear fusion within stars, holds together the atom's nucleus, and is released during an atomic bomb's detonation. The weak interaction is involved in radioactive decay. In modern physics, gravitation is the only fundamental interaction still modeled as classical/continuous (versus quantum/discrete). Beyond the Standard Model, some theorists work to unite the electroweak and strong interactions within a Grand Unified Theory (GUT). The interactions Gravitation
Arvo Pärt Arvo Pärt (Estonian pronunciation: [ˈɑrvo ˈpært]; born 11 September 1935) is an Estonian composer of classical and sacred music. Since the late 1970s, Pärt has worked in a minimalist style that employs his self-invented compositional technique, tintinnabuli. His music is in part inspired by Gregorian chant. As of 2013, Pärt has been the most performed contemporary composer in the world for three years in a row. Life Pärt was born in Paide, Järva County, Estonia, and was raised by his mother and stepfather in Rakvere in northern Estonia. In 1980, after a prolonged struggle with Soviet officials, he was allowed to emigrate with his wife and their two sons. Musical development Familiar works by Pärt are Cantus In Memoriam Benjamin Britten for string orchestra and bell (1977) and the string quintet "Fratres I" (1977, revised 1983), which he transcribed for string orchestra and percussion, the solo violin "Fratres II" and the cello ensemble "Fratres III" (both 1980).