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Indus Valley Civilization

Indus Valley Civilization
The major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization imposed over modern borders The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India (see map). Along with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, it was one of three early civilizations of the Old World, and the most widespread among them, covering an area of 1.25 million km2.[3] It flourished in the basins of the Indus River, one of the major rivers of Asia, and the now dried up Sarasvati River,[4][5] which once coursed through northwest India and eastern Pakistan together with its tributaries flowed along a channel, presently identified as that of the Ghaggar-Hakra River on the basis of various scientific studies.[7][8][9] The Harappan language is not directly attested and its affiliation is uncertain since the Indus script is still undeciphered. Discovery and history of excavation Chronology Geography Cities Related:  Indus Valley CivilizationAncient CivilisationsAncient People

Cities of the Indus Valley Since the first discovery of this civilization in 1920-21 at Harappa in the Indus Valley, hundreds of sites spread over more than a million square kilometres in the Indian subcontinent have been excavated, many of these are in Northern and Western India. Geographically, it was spread over an area of some 1,260,000 km, comprising the whole of modern day Pakistan and parts of modern-day India and Afghanistan. To date, over 1,052 cities and settlements have been found, mainly in the banks of the Ghaggar-Hakra River and its tributaries. The Indus Valley Civilization was extended from Baluchistan to Gujarat, with an upward reach to the Punjab from east of River Jhelum to Rupar on the upper Sutlej. Kotdiji: Kot Diji, 40 km east of Mohen-jo-Daro on the left bank, is one of the earliest known fortified city. Naushero: The site of Naushero, located six km away from Mehargarh had developed Kotdijian settlement. Kalibangan: This pre-historic town is located 205 Km from Bikaner.

Indian religions Ganesha, a deity common to Hindus, Jains, and Buddhists. Primarily a widely-worshipped Hindu deity. Indian religions are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism.[web 1][note 1] These religions are also classified as Eastern religions. Although Indian religions are connected through the history of India, they constitute a wide range of religious communities, and are not confined to the Indian subcontinent.[web 1] Evidence attesting to prehistoric religion in the Indian subcontinent derives from scattered Mesolithic rock paintings. The documented history of Indian religions begins with the historical Vedic religion, the religious practices of the early Indo-Aryans, which were collected and later redacted into the Vedas. The Reform Period between 800-200 BCE marks a "turning point between the Vedic religion and Hindu religions". The early Islamic period (1100-1500 CE) also gave rise to new movements. History Periodisation

Maurya Empire The Maurya Empire was a geographically extensive Iron Age historical power in ancient India, ruled by the Maurya dynasty from 322–185 BCE. Originating from the kingdom of Magadha in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (modern Bihar, eastern Uttar Pradesh) in the eastern side of the Indian subcontinent, the empire had its capital city at Pataliputra (modern Patna).[1][2] The Empire was founded in 322 BCE by Chandragupta Maurya, who had overthrown the Nanda Dynasty and rapidly expanded his power westwards across central and western India, taking advantage of the disruptions of local powers in the wake of the withdrawal westward by Alexander's Hellenic armies. By 316 BCE the empire had fully occupied Northwestern India, defeating and conquering the satraps left by Alexander.[3] Chandragupta then defeated the invasion led by Seleucus I, a Macedonian general from Alexander's army, gaining additional territory west of the Indus River.[4] History[edit] Chandragupta Maurya and Chanakya[edit] Bindusara[edit]

The Ancient City - Ancient History Encyclopedia In the study of the ancient world a City is generally defined as a large populated urban center of commerce and administration with a system of laws and, usually, regulated means of sanitation. This is only one definition, however, and the designation `City' can be based on such factors as the: population of the settlement height of buildings density of buildings/population presence of some kind of sewer system level of administrative government presence of walls and/or fortifications geographical area of the settlement or whether a `settlement' was called a `city' in antiquity and fits at least one of the above qualifications. In the ancient world, very often a `city' describes an urban center of dense population and a certain pattern of buildings spreading out from a central religious complex such as a temple (though, frustratingly, this could sometimes apply equally well to a `village' or `settlement'). The concept of the `urban revolution’, first identified by V. The First City

Vedic period The Vedic period (or Vedic age) was a period in history during which the Vedas, the oldest scriptures of Hinduism, were composed. The time span of the period is uncertain. Philological and linguistic evidence indicates that the Rigveda, the oldest of the Vedas, was composed roughly between 1700 and 1100 BCE, also referred to as the early Vedic period.[1] The end of the period is commonly estimated to have occurred about 500 BCE, and 150 BCE has been suggested as a terminus ante quem for all Vedic Sanskrit literature. Transmission of texts in the Vedic period was by oral tradition alone,[3] and a literary tradition set in only in post-Vedic times. After the end of the Vedic period, the Mahajanapadas period in turn gave way to the Maurya Empire (from ca. 320 BCE), the golden age of classical Sanskrit literature. Map of northern India in the later Vedic age. History Early Vedic Period (1500–1000 BCE) Later Vedic period (1000–500 BCE) Second urbainsation Political organisation Economy Culture

Indus Civilization Introduction n fact, there seems to have been another large river which ran parallel and west of the Indus in the third and fourth millenium BCE. This was the ancient Saraswati-Ghaggar-Hakra River (which some scholars associate with the Saraswati River of the Rg Veda). Its lost banks are slowly being traced by researchers. Along its now dry bed, archaeologists are discovering a whole new set of ancient towns and cities. Meluhha Ancient Mesopotamian texts speak of trading with at least two seafaring civilizations - Magan and Meluhha - in the neighborhood of South Asia in the third millennium B.C. This site tells the story of the ancient Indus Civilization through the words and photographs of the world's leading scholars in the US, Europe, India and Pakistan. HARP and Indian excavations Since 1986, the joint Pakistani American Harappa Archaeological Research Project (HARP) has been carrying out the first major excavations at the site since before independence in 1946. Harappa.com II.

Jainism Jainism (/ˈdʒeɪnɪzəm/[1] or /ˈdʒaɪnɪzəm/[2]), traditionally known as Jin Sashana or Jain dharma (Sanskrit: जैन धर्म), is an Indian religion that prescribes a path of nonviolence (ahimsa) towards all living beings. Practitioners believe that nonviolence and self-control are the means by which they can obtain liberation. The three main principles of Jainism are non-violence (ahimsa), non-absolutism (anekantavada) and non-possessiveness (aparigraha). Followers of Jainism take 5 major vows: non-violence, non-lying, non-stealing, chastity, and non-attachment. Asceticism is thus a major focus of the Jain faith. Jainism is derived from the word Jina (conqueror) referring to a human being who has conquered inner enemies like attachment, desire, anger, pride, greed, etc. and possesses infinite knowledge (Kevala Jnana). Doctrine[edit] Non-violence (ahimsa)[edit] The hand with a wheel on the palm symbolizes Ahimsa (nonviolence). Non-absolutism[edit] Main article: Anekantavada Non-possessiveness[edit]

Middle kingdoms of India Middle kingdoms of India (or Classical India) refers to the political entities in India from the 3rd century BCE and the 13th century CE. This period begins after the decline of the Maurya Empire, and the corresponding rise of the Satavahana dynasty, beginning with Simuka, from 230 BC. The "Middle" period lasts for some 1,500 years, and ends in the 13th century, with the rise of the Delhi Sultanate and the end of the Chalukya Cholas (Rajendra Chola III died 1279). The Northwest[edit] The Mauryan Empire, during the 2nd century BC, became a collage of regional powers with overlapping boundaries. The invading tribes were influenced by Buddhism which continued to flourish under the patronage of both the invaders and the Satavahanas and Guptas and provides a cultural bridge between the two cultures. The Indo-Scythian Sakas[edit] The Indo-Greeks[edit] The Yavanas[edit] The Yavanas or Yonas were described as living beyond Gandhara. The Indo-Parthians[edit] The Pahlavas[edit] The Kushans[edit]

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