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Indus Valley Civilization

Indus Valley Civilization
The major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization imposed over modern borders The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India (see map). Along with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, it was one of three early civilizations of the Old World, and the most widespread among them, covering an area of 1.25 million km2.[3] It flourished in the basins of the Indus River, one of the major rivers of Asia, and the now dried up Sarasvati River,[4][5] which once coursed through northwest India and eastern Pakistan together with its tributaries flowed along a channel, presently identified as that of the Ghaggar-Hakra River on the basis of various scientific studies.[7][8][9] The Harappan language is not directly attested and its affiliation is uncertain since the Indus script is still undeciphered. Discovery and history of excavation Chronology Geography Cities Related:  Indus Valley CivilizationAncient CivilisationsAncient People

Cities of the Indus Valley Since the first discovery of this civilization in 1920-21 at Harappa in the Indus Valley, hundreds of sites spread over more than a million square kilometres in the Indian subcontinent have been excavated, many of these are in Northern and Western India. Geographically, it was spread over an area of some 1,260,000 km, comprising the whole of modern day Pakistan and parts of modern-day India and Afghanistan. To date, over 1,052 cities and settlements have been found, mainly in the banks of the Ghaggar-Hakra River and its tributaries. The Indus Valley Civilization was extended from Baluchistan to Gujarat, with an upward reach to the Punjab from east of River Jhelum to Rupar on the upper Sutlej. Kotdiji: Kot Diji, 40 km east of Mohen-jo-Daro on the left bank, is one of the earliest known fortified city. Naushero: The site of Naushero, located six km away from Mehargarh had developed Kotdijian settlement. Kalibangan: This pre-historic town is located 205 Km from Bikaner.

The Ancient City - Ancient History Encyclopedia In the study of the ancient world a City is generally defined as a large populated urban center of commerce and administration with a system of laws and, usually, regulated means of sanitation. This is only one definition, however, and the designation `City' can be based on such factors as the: population of the settlement height of buildings density of buildings/population presence of some kind of sewer system level of administrative government presence of walls and/or fortifications geographical area of the settlement or whether a `settlement' was called a `city' in antiquity and fits at least one of the above qualifications. In the ancient world, very often a `city' describes an urban center of dense population and a certain pattern of buildings spreading out from a central religious complex such as a temple (though, frustratingly, this could sometimes apply equally well to a `village' or `settlement'). The concept of the `urban revolution’, first identified by V. The First City

Vedic period The Vedic period (or Vedic age) was a period in history during which the Vedas, the oldest scriptures of Hinduism, were composed. The time span of the period is uncertain. Philological and linguistic evidence indicates that the Rigveda, the oldest of the Vedas, was composed roughly between 1700 and 1100 BCE, also referred to as the early Vedic period.[1] The end of the period is commonly estimated to have occurred about 500 BCE, and 150 BCE has been suggested as a terminus ante quem for all Vedic Sanskrit literature. Transmission of texts in the Vedic period was by oral tradition alone,[3] and a literary tradition set in only in post-Vedic times. After the end of the Vedic period, the Mahajanapadas period in turn gave way to the Maurya Empire (from ca. 320 BCE), the golden age of classical Sanskrit literature. Map of northern India in the later Vedic age. History Early Vedic Period (1500–1000 BCE) Later Vedic period (1000–500 BCE) Second urbainsation Political organisation Economy Culture

Indus Civilization Introduction n fact, there seems to have been another large river which ran parallel and west of the Indus in the third and fourth millenium BCE. This was the ancient Saraswati-Ghaggar-Hakra River (which some scholars associate with the Saraswati River of the Rg Veda). Its lost banks are slowly being traced by researchers. Along its now dry bed, archaeologists are discovering a whole new set of ancient towns and cities. Meluhha Ancient Mesopotamian texts speak of trading with at least two seafaring civilizations - Magan and Meluhha - in the neighborhood of South Asia in the third millennium B.C. This site tells the story of the ancient Indus Civilization through the words and photographs of the world's leading scholars in the US, Europe, India and Pakistan. HARP and Indian excavations Since 1986, the joint Pakistani American Harappa Archaeological Research Project (HARP) has been carrying out the first major excavations at the site since before independence in 1946. II.

New Zealand Maritime Museum: Waka According to the Tahitian story, the ancient king and voyager Tumu-nui listed eight dangers of the sea: long-wave, short-wave, isolated-coral-rock, fish-shoal, sea-monster, animal-with-burning-flesh, crane-empowered-by-Ta'aroa [the supreme god of creation], and giant-clam-opening-at-the-horizon. Tumu-nui’s nephew Rata succeeded in destroying six of these dangers so that only two remained – long wave and short wave. The early explorers of the Pacific Ocean would have faced the many dangers of the open sea, extreme weather, and the unknown of new territories in their journeys. The thirst for exploration and discovery, knowledge of the sea, and the courage to leave their home lands to seek others, meant these dangers were worth facing. Modern research places the origins of the Pacific peoples in Island South-East Asia. At the core of Pacific navigation was knowledge of the stars and their movements.

Maurya Empire The Maurya Empire was a geographically extensive Iron Age historical power in ancient India, ruled by the Maurya dynasty from 322–185 BCE. Originating from the kingdom of Magadha in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (modern Bihar, eastern Uttar Pradesh) in the eastern side of the Indian subcontinent, the empire had its capital city at Pataliputra (modern Patna).[1][2] The Empire was founded in 322 BCE by Chandragupta Maurya, who had overthrown the Nanda Dynasty and rapidly expanded his power westwards across central and western India, taking advantage of the disruptions of local powers in the wake of the withdrawal westward by Alexander's Hellenic armies. By 316 BCE the empire had fully occupied Northwestern India, defeating and conquering the satraps left by Alexander.[3] Chandragupta then defeated the invasion led by Seleucus I, a Macedonian general from Alexander's army, gaining additional territory west of the Indus River.[4] History[edit] Chandragupta Maurya and Chanakya[edit] Bindusara[edit]

History and Politics, Indus Valley Indus Valley Civilization. The earliest traces of civilization in the Indian subcontinent are to be found in places along, or close, to the Indus river. Excavations first conducted in 1921-22, in the ancient cities of Harappa and Mohenjodaro, both now in Pakistan, pointed to a highly complex civilization that first developed some 4,500-5,000 years ago, and subsequent archaeological and historical research has now furnished us with a more detailed picture of the Indus Valley Civilization and its inhabitants. The Indus Valley people were most likely Dravidians, who may have been pushed down into south India when the Aryans, with their more advanced military technology, commenced their migrations to India around 2,000 BCE. Some kind of centralized state, and certainly fairly extensive town planning, is suggested by the layout of the great cities of Harappa and Mohenjodaro. The Indus Valley civilization raises a great many, largely unresolved, questions. Back to Ancient India

How the Ancient Romans Made Better Concrete Than We Do Now Kinja is in read-only mode. We are working to restore service. Concretes problem isn't the atmosphere (well not 100%, I'd say something like ~10% ish for the things you are talking about), it's the fact we use 1000s of 18-wheelers of 5+ tons each that damage the roads. Romans never had that sort of weight bearing down on their concrete, and the amounts of concrete we do see are the buildings, which, yes, us civil engineers do admire their ability to make an efficient enough concrete to have lasted this without needing reinforcing steel in it. There is also the fact that the majority of the Roman concrete we still see is around the Mediterranean, were the winters are never that cold and so the temperature range the concrete goes though is much narrower. Lastly, modern concrete *is* better than Roman concrete in the ways we use it today, namely compressive structures. Oh and the High Strength concrete we have today? Apologies for the long rant.