Asynchronous I/O Input and output (I/O) operations on a computer can be extremely slow compared to the processing of data. An I/O device can incorporate mechanical devices that must physically move, such as a hard drive seeking a track to read or write; this is often orders of magnitude slower than the switching of electric current. For example, during a disk operation that takes ten milliseconds to perform, a processor that is clocked at one gigahertz could have performed ten million instruction-processing cycles. A simple approach to I/O would be to start the access and then wait for it to complete. But such an approach (called synchronous I/O or blocking I/O) would block the progress of a program while the communication is in progress, leaving system resources idle. When a program makes many I/O operations, this means that the processor can spend almost all of its time idle waiting for I/O operations to complete.
XML Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format which is both human-readable and machine-readable. It is defined by the W3C's XML 1.0 Specification and by several other related specifications, all of which are free open standards. The design goals of XML emphasize simplicity, generality and usability across the Internet. It is a textual data format with strong support via Unicode for different human languages. Although the design of XML focuses on documents, it is widely used for the representation of arbitrary data structures such as those used in web services. Several schema systems exist to aid in the definition of XML-based languages, while many application programming interfaces (APIs) have been developed to aid the processing of XML data. Applications of XML
HTTP cookie A HTTP cookie (also called web cookie, Internet cookie, browser cookie or simply cookie, the latter which is not to be confused with the literal definition), is a small piece of data sent from a website and stored in a user's web browser while the user is browsing that website. Every time the user loads the website, the browser sends the cookie back to the server to notify the website of the user's previous activity. Cookies were designed to be a reliable mechanism for websites to remember stateful information (such as items in a shopping cart) or to record the user's browsing activity (including clicking particular buttons, logging in, or recording which pages were visited by the user as far back as months or years ago). §History The term "cookie" was derived from the term "magic cookie", which is a packet of data a program receives and sends back unchanged. Together with John Giannandrea, Montulli wrote the initial Netscape cookie specification the same year. §Structure
Features - "Advanced Character Physics" printer friendly This article explains the basic elements of an approach to physically-based modeling which is well suited for interactive use. It is simple, fast, and quite stable, and in its basic version the method does not require knowledge of advanced mathematical subjects (although it is based on a solid mathematical foundation). It allows for simulation of both cloth; soft and rigid bodies; and even articulated or constrained bodies using both forward and inverse kinematics. The algorithms were developed for IO Interactive’s game Hitman: Codename 47. There, among other things, the physics system was responsible for the movement of cloth, plants, rigid bodies, and for making dead human bodies fall in unique ways depending on where they were hit, fully interacting with the environment (resulting in the press oxymoron “lifelike death animations”).The article also deals with subtleties like penetration test optimization and friction handling.