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Free market

Free market
For economic systems coordinated by either free markets or regulated markets, see Market economy. A free market is a market system in which the prices for goods and services are set freely by consent between sellers and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority. A free market contrasts with a controlled market or regulated market, in which government intervenes in supply and demand through non-market methods such as laws creating barriers to market entry or directly setting prices. A free market economy is a market-based economy where prices for goods and services are set freely by the forces of supply and demand and are allowed to reach their point of equilibrium without intervention by government policy, and it typically entails support for highly competitive markets and private ownership of productive enterprises. Economic systems[edit] Laissez-faire economics[edit] Notes[edit]

Monetarism Monetarism is a school of economic thought that emphasizes the role of governments in controlling the amount of money in circulation. It is the view within monetary economics that variation in the money supply has major influences on national output in the short run and the price level over longer periods and that objectives of monetary policy are best met by targeting the growth rate of the money supply.[1] Monetarism today is mainly associated with the work of Milton Friedman, who was among the generation of economists to accept Keynesian economics and then criticize Keynes' theory of gluts using fiscal policy (government spending). Description[edit] Monetarism is an economic theory that focuses on the macroeconomic effects of the supply of money and central banking. The result was summarized in a historical analysis of monetary policy, Monetary History of the United States 1867–1960, which Friedman coauthored with Anna Schwartz. Opposition to the gold standard[edit] Rise[edit] General:

Money supply Money supply data are recorded and published, usually by the government or the central bank of the country. Public and private sector analysts have long monitored changes in money supply because of its effects on the price level, inflation, the exchange rate and the business cycle.[4] That relation between money and prices is historically associated with the quantity theory of money. The nature of this causal chain is the subject of contention. In addition, those economists seeing the central bank's control over the money supply as feeble say that there are two weak links between the growth of the money supply and the inflation rate. Empirical measures in the United States Federal Reserve System[edit] See also European Central Bank for other approaches and a more global perspective. Money is used as a medium of exchange, a unit of account, and as a ready store of value. This continuum corresponds to the way that different types of money are more or less controlled by monetary policy.

Quantity theory of money In monetary economics, the quantity theory of money states that money supply has a direct, proportional relationship with the price level. While mainstream economists agree that the quantity theory holds true in the long run, there is still disagreement about its applicability in the short run. Critics of the theory argue that money velocity is not stable and, in the short-run, prices are sticky, so the direct relationship between money supply and price level does not hold. Alternative theories include the real bills doctrine and the more recent fiscal theory of the price level. Origins and development of the quantity theory[edit] The quantity theory descends from Copernicus,[1][2] followers of the School of Salamanca, Jean Bodin,[3] and various others who noted the increase in prices following the import of gold and silver, used in the coinage of money, from the New World. John Maynard Keynes, like Marx, accepted the theory in general and wrote... "This Theory is fundamental. where and , or

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