IGBP - IGBP International Human Dimensions Programme The International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP) is a research programme that studies the human and societal aspects of the phenomenon of global change. IHDP aims to frame, develop and integrate social science research on global change, and promote the application of its key findings. It strives to develop research approaches that put societies at the center of the debate, looking at current global environmental problems as social and societal challenges. IHDP’s work brings together groups of multi-disciplinary and multi-national researchers to work on long-term collaborative science. IHDP research is conducted by its ten projects. Its six core projects, focus on how humans affect and are affected by climate change, with specific topics including human security, urbanization, industrial transformation and environmental governance as they relate to global change. History Secretariat Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP)
World-systems theory A world map of countries by trading status, late 20th century, using the world system differentiation into core countries (blue), semi-periphery countries (purple) and periphery countries (red). Based on the list in Dunn, Kawana, Brewer (2000). World-systems theory (also known as world-systems analysis or the world-systems perspective), a multidisciplinary, macro-scale approach to world history and social change, emphasizes the world-system (and not nation states) as the primary (but not exclusive) unit of social analysis. Background Immanuel Wallerstein has developed the best-known version of world-systems analysis, beginning in the 1970s. Wallerstein traces the rise of the capitalist world-economy from the "long" sixteenth century (c. 1450-1640). Many other scholars have contributed significant work in this "knowledge movement". Origins Influences and major thinkers World-systems theory was aiming to replace modernization theory. Dependency theory
Home Antonio Busalacchi Professor and Director From the polar ice caps to the deserts of China, from the skies over Oklahoma to the Atlantic Ocean near Northeast Brazil, ESSIC scientists are busy examining the Earth's Systems through the various lenses of their particular specialties. Cutting across the traditional disciplinary boundaries of meteorology, oceanography, geology and geography, ESSIC seeks to better understand how the land, the oceans and the atmosphere react with, and influence, one another. These interrelationships profoundly affect the current and future health and welfare of our planet and all its inhabitants. At ESSIC, some of the questions our researchers are exploring are: How do the ocean, atmosphere, and land surfaces interact to induce changes in climate?
Earth system science Earth system science seeks to integrate various fields of academic study to understand the Earth as a system. It considers interaction between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere (geosphere), biosphere, and heliosphere. In 1996, the American Geophysical Union, in cooperation with the Keck Geology Consortium and with support from five divisions within the National Science Foundation, convened a workshop "to define common educational goals among all disciplines in the Earth sciences." In its report, participants noted that, "The fields that make up the Earth and space sciences are currently undergoing a major advancement that promotes understanding the Earth as a number of interrelated systems." Recognizing the rise of this systems approach, the workshop report recommended that an Earth system science curriculum be developed with support from the National Science Foundation. Definition Inspiration in the Gaia theory The programmes have stated the following:
Earth System Science Earth System Science In the phrase "Earth system science (ESS)," the key term is "system." A system is a collection of interdependent parts enclosed within a defined boundary. Within the boundary of the earth is a collection of four interdependent parts called "spheres." Earth's spheres include: the lithosphere, which contains all of the cold, hard, solid rock of the planet's crust (surface), the hot semi-solid rock that lies underneath the crust, the hot liquid rock near the center of the planet, and the solid iron core (center) of the planet the hydrosphere, which contains all of the planet's solid, liquid, and gaseous water, the biosphere, which contains all of the planet's living organisms, and the atmosphere, which contains all of the planet's air. These spheres are closely connected. Events can occur naturally, such as an earthquake or a hurricane, or they can be caused by humans, such as an oil spill or air pollution. The double-headed arrows ( In addition to the above four event
essp.org Earth System Science Earth System Science The environmental conditions of earth, including the climate, are determined by physical, chemical, biological, and human interactions that transform and transport materials and energy. This is the "earth system": a highly complex entity characterized by multiple nonlinear responses and thresholds, with linkages between disparate components. (Jickells, et al, 2005). Definition The Oxford English Dictionary defines a system as: A set or assemblage of things connected, associated, or interdependent, so as to form a complex unity; a whole composed of parts in orderly arrangement according to some scheme or plan. The earth system is composed of interacting physical, chemical, and biological processes that move and change materials and energy on earth. Earth systems interact through feedbacks. Goal History A schematic diagram of the earth system proposed by the Bretherton committee, 1988. Organizations Studying Earth Systems The Science Recent Developments Consequences References