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The Marshmallow Test: What Does It Really Measure?

Ultimately, the new study finds limited support for the idea that being able to delay gratification leads to better outcomes. Instead, it suggests that the capacity to hold out for a second marshmallow is shaped in large part by a child’s social and economic background—and, in turn, that that background, not the ability to delay gratification, is what’s behind kids’ long-term success. The marshmallow test isn’t the only experimental study that has recently failed to hold up under closer scrutiny. Some scholars and journalists have gone so far as to suggest that psychology is in the midst of a “replication crisis.” This new paper found that among kids whose mothers had a college degree, those who waited for a second marshmallow did no better in the long run—in terms of standardized test scores and mothers’ reports of their children’s behavior—than those who dug right in. There’s plenty of other research that sheds further light on the class dimension of the marshmallow test. Related:  Last readFinance Workshop

Portugal : un redressement économique et social qui prend Bruxelles à contre-pied Il y a un an, en juillet 2016, la Commission européenne entamait une procédure pour "déficit excessif" contre le gouvernement de Lisbonne. Le Portugal risquait une amende, selon Bruxelles, puisque il était censé ramener son déficit à 2,5 % de son PIB en 2015 au lieu des 4,4 % annoncés. La procédure a été abandonnée un mois plus tard. Etonnement, la France n'était pas soumise à la même pression, alors qu'elle n'avait pas — elle non plus — tenu ses engagements : 3,4% de déficit au lieu des 3% requis. Mais l'économie portugaise n'a pas réussi à réduire ses déficits par la baisse des dépenses publiques, des réformes structurelles du travail visant à "assouplir" les droits des salariés, ou en abaissant les protections sociales, comme le préconise la Commission européenne. > Portugal : les audaces de la gauche irritent à Bruxelles​ Mesures socio-économiques > Ni austérité, ni populisme : le Portugal suit sa voie de gauche Politique anti-austéritaire de relance par la demande

Personal Finance for Beginners I - Retire Japan This is the start of a new series here at RetireJapan. Over the next four weeks we'll be looking at personal finance for people in their twenties, their thirties, their forties, and their fifties.If you're too old for today's post feel free to read along anyway -you can think of what might have been or take notes for when your kids grow up :)So you're in your 20s and you want to get started with personal finance? Not only have you come to the right place, I am really jealous of you.The sooner you start building good financial habits, the better off you will end up. Warren Buffett started investing when he was 11 -and look at him now, with his $71.8 billion.As a young adult, you have some huge advantages. Being aware of them and working on a few basic financial habits will put you in a very favourable position going forwards.1. First of all, you have huge amounts of human capital.

The Scientific Argument for Mastering One Thing at a Time Many people, myself included, have multiple areas of life they would like to improve. For example, I would like to reach more people with my writing, to lift heavier weights at the gym, and to start practicing mindfulness more consistently. Those are just a few of the goals I find desirable and you probably have a long list yourself. The problem is, even if we are committed to working hard on our goals, our natural tendency is to revert back to our old habits at some point. Making a permanent lifestyle change is really difficult. Recently, I’ve come across a few research studies that (just maybe) will make these difficult lifestyle changes a little bit easier. Too Many Good Intentions If you want to master multiple habits and stick to them for good, then you need to figure out how to be consistent. Well, here is one of the most robust findings from psychology research on how to actually follow through on your goals: What Happens When You Focus on One Thing

Unique neuronal firing patterns in our "second brain" observed for the first time Using a newly developed imaging technique, a team of researchers in Australia has directly observed a unique neural motor firing pattern outside of the brain or central nervous system. The pattern of neuronal firing, in the intestine, showed exactly how our enteric nervous system coordinates contractions in our gastrointestinal tract. The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a massive mesh of neurons located in our gastrointestinal tract. It's the largest collection of neurons found in the body outside of the brain, and because of its ability to operate entirely independently it has often been referred to as our "second brain." It is only recently that science has begun to seriously look at how this so-called second brain actually functions. The new research outlines the development of a new, high resolution neuronal imaging method designed to expressly examine neuronal firing in the ENS. A new field of science, neurogastroenterology, has arisen to study this complicated mass of neurons.

Foster families who ignore race are participating in a pernicious form of racism Derek Owusu draws on personal experiences to argue that there needs to be more education about the needs of black children when being fostered I was eight years old when I first realised I was black. Before that, all I saw myself as was a ‘different kind of person’. No colour attached, but of course, visibly different to my peers. I was in foster care for the first eight years of my life–the formative years that, according to the Jesuit maxim, make you the man you will grow into. Late discoveries about identity are very common among black children raised in foster care by white families. When I arrived in London, one of my first experiences was getting a proper haircut. This disgust continued back home, where I was scolded for looking permanently “ashy”, and not knowing how to moisturise myself properly. It took some time for my head to heal and for me to learn to take care of my skin; to allow my darkness to develop a healthy glow. Like this: Like Loading...

Boy Scouts Personal Management Merit Badge and Worksheet Requirements for the Personal Management merit badge: Do the following: Choose an item that your family might want to purchase that is considered a major expense. Write a plan that tells how your family would save money for the purchase identified in requirement 1a. Discuss the plan with your merit badge counselor. Discuss the plan with your family. Comment about this page: Contest - Ask a Question - Add Content This site is not officially associated with the Boy Scouts of America Find more Scouting Resources at

Tomorrow's cities: Google's Toronto city built 'from the internet up' Image copyright Sidewalk Labs On Toronto's Eastern waterfront, a new digital city is being built by Sidewalk Labs - a firm owned by Google's parent Alphabet. It hopes the project will become a model for 21st-Century urbanism. But the deal has been controversial, representing one of biggest ever tie-ups between a city and a large corporation. And that, coupled with the fact that the corporation in question is one of the largest tech firms in the world, is causing some unease. Sidewalk Labs promises to transform the disused waterfront area into a bustling mini metropolis, one built "from the internet up", although there is no timetable for when the city will actually be built. Dan Doctoroff, the company's head and former deputy mayor of New York, told the BBC the project was "about creating healthier, safer, more convenient and more fun lives". "We want this to be a model for what urban life can be in the 21st Century," he said. "What data will be gathered and what is it going to be used for?

Does this image freak you out? Here's why Trypophobia, commonly known as “fear of holes,” is linked to a physiological response more associated with disgust than fear, a new study suggests. Trypophobia is not officially recognized in the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Many people, however, report feeling an aversion to clusters of holes—such as those of a honeycomb, a lotus seed pod, or even aerated chocolate. “Some people are so intensely bothered by the sight of these objects that they can’t stand to be around them,” says Stella Lourenco, a psychologist at Emory University. “The phenomenon, which likely has an evolutionary basis, may be more common than we realize.” Previous research linked trypophobic reactions to some of the same visual spectral properties shared by images of evolutionarily threatening animals, such as snakes and spiders. “Low-level visual properties can convey a lot of meaningful information. Neurotic? Source: Emory University

L’inquiétude monte face à l’impact des écrans sur les plus jeunes Les professionnels de l’enfance s’alarment des troubles du développement chez les plus exposés précocement. Bon nombre de professionnels de l’enfance s’inquiètent de la place des écrans et de leur impact, et ce dès le plus jeune âge. Elisabeth Baton-Hervé, chercheuse indépendan­te, formatrice à l’éducation à l’image et aux médias, a voulu en savoir plus et a mené depuis 2014 une cinquantaine d’entretiens avec ces professionnels de terrain sur cette question, dans douze départements. Elle a présenté des premiers résultats lors de la troisième édition du colloque « Les impacts des écrans sur la jeunesse : un enjeu majeur de santé publique », organisé par l’Association pour l’éducation à la réduction du temps écran (Alerte) et Edupax (une association québécoise qui organise les journées sans écran dans les écoles), qui s’est tenu ­samedi 5 mai à la mairie du 19e arrondissement, à Paris. Réalité et fiction confondues Les conséquences ?

Money saving tips Price's Law: Why Only A Few People Generate Half Of The Results - Darius Foroux Example of how Price’s Law works in a field/company with 100 people At my first sales job, I had about 25 colleagues who did the same work. After the first month, I noticed something peculiar. Only 4 of my co-workers brought in more than half of the total sales. I was 17 years old at the time, and I had no idea why that was. These folks were the superstars on the floor — the untouchables. Little did I know that this relation holds true for almost everything in business. Value Creation Is Not Symmetric Derek Price, who was a British physicist, historian of science, and information scientist, discovered something about his peers in academia. Price found out the following (now called Price’s law): 50% of the work is done by the square root of the total number of people participate in the work. In my example, that means 5 people (square root of 25) should bring in 50% of the sales. After my first job, I noticed the same ratio at every single company I’ve worked with. What Are The Implications?