background preloader

Franklin D. Roosevelt

Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt (/ˈroʊzəvəlt/ ROH-zə-vəlt, his own pronunciation,[1] or /ˈroʊzəvɛlt/ ROH-zə-velt) (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), commonly known by his initials FDR, was an American lawyer and statesman who served as the 32nd President of the United States. Serving from March 1933 to his death in April 1945, he was elected for four consecutive terms, and remains the only president ever to serve more than eight years. He was a central figure in world events during the mid-20th century, leading the United States during a time of worldwide economic depression and total war. With the bouncy popular song "Happy Days Are Here Again" as his campaign theme, FDR defeated incumbent Republican Herbert Hoover in November 1932, at the depth of the Great Depression. As World War II loomed after 1938, with the Japanese invasion of China and the aggression of Nazi Germany, FDR gave strong diplomatic and financial support to China and Great Britain, while remaining officially neutral. Related:  Wikipedia A

Eleanor Roosevelt Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (/ˈɛlɨnɔr ˈroʊzəvɛlt/; October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962) was an American politician. She was the longest-serving First Lady of the United States, holding the post from March 1933 to April 1945 during her husband President Franklin D. Roosevelt's four terms in office. President Harry S. A member of the Roosevelt and Livingston families, Eleanor had an unhappy childhood, suffering the deaths of both parents and one of her brothers at a young age. Though widely respected in her later years, Roosevelt was a controversial First Lady for her outspokenness, particularly her stance on racial issues. Following her husband's death, Eleanor remained active in politics for the rest of her life. Personal life Early life Anna Eleanor Roosevelt was born at 56 West 37th Street in New York City, to socialites Elliott Bulloch Roosevelt (1860–1894) and Anna Rebecca Hall (1863–1892).[4] From an early age, she preferred to be called by her middle name (Eleanor). Other relationships

Dances with Wolves (1990) Ankh Ankh It represents the concept of eternal life, which is the general meaning of the symbol.[citation needed] The Egyptian gods are often portrayed carrying it by its loop, or bearing one in each hand, arms crossed over their chest. Origin[edit] The origin of the symbol remains a mystery to Egyptologists, and no single hypothesis has been widely accepted. It is by Egyptologists called the symbol of life. An ankh-shaped mirror case History[edit] A symbol similar to the ankh appears frequently in Minoan and Mycenaean sites. The ankh also appeared frequently in coins from ancient Cyprus and Asia Minor (particularly the city of Mallus in Cilicia).[9] In some cases, especially with the early coinage of King Euelthon of Salamis, the letter ku, from the Cypriot syllabary, appeared within the circle ankh, representing Ku(prion) (Cypriots). David P. References[edit] Bibliography[edit] Collier, Mark and Manley, Bill. Notes[edit] Jump up ^ Collier, Mark and Manley, Bill. External links[edit]

Emperor Meiji Emperor Meiji (明治天皇, Meiji-tennō?, November 3, 1852 – July 30, 1912), or Meiji the Great (明治大帝, Meiji-taitei?), was the 122nd Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from February 3, 1867 until his death on July 30, 1912. He presided over a time of rapid change in the Empire of Japan, as the nation quickly changed from a feudal state to a capitalist and imperial world power, characterized by Japan's industrial revolution. During his lifetime, the emperor was known by his personal name Mutsuhito (睦仁?). Background[edit] In 1615, the first Tokugawa shogun, Tokugawa Ieyasu, who had officially retired from his position, and his son Tokugawa Hidetada, the titular shogun, issued a code of behavior for the nobility. Soon after taking control in the early seventeenth century, shogunate officials (known generically as bakufu) ended much Western trade with Japan, and barred missionaries from the islands. Boyhood[edit] Unrest and accession[edit] Meiji era[edit]

Akihito Akihito (明仁?, born 23 December 1933) English pronunciation is the reigning Emperor of Japan (天皇, tennō?) In Japan, the emperor is never referred to by his given name, but rather is referred to as "His Imperial Majesty the Emperor" (天皇陛下, Tennō Heika?) Biography[edit] The newly married Crown Prince and Crown Princess in Japanese traditional attire, with the Prince wearing a sokutai, the Princess a jūnihitoe Akihito is the eldest son and the fifth child of Emperor Shōwa (Hirohito) and Empress Kōjun (Nagako). During the American firebombing raids on Tokyo in March 1945, Akihito and his younger brother, Prince Masahito, were evacuated from the city. Although he was Heir-Apparent to the Chrysanthemum Throne from the moment of his birth, Akihito's formal Investiture as Crown Prince (立太子礼, Rittaishi-no-rei?) Then-Crown Prince Akihito and Crown Princess Michiko made official visits to thirty-seven countries. Marriage and children[edit] Official functions[edit] Succession[edit] Titles and styles[edit]

Emperor Taishō Emperor Taishō (大正天皇, Taishō-tennō?, 31 August 1879 – 25 December 1926) was the 123rd Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from 30 July 1912, until his death in 1926. The Emperor’s personal name was Yoshihito (嘉仁?). Early life[edit] Prince Yoshihito was born at the Aoyama Palace in Tokyo to the Emperor Meiji and Yanagihara Naruko, a concubine with the official title of gon-no-tenji. Prince Yoshihito contracted cerebral meningitis within three weeks of his birth, leaving him in poor health.[2] (It has also been rumored that he suffered from lead poisoning, supposedly contracted from the lead-based makeup his wet nurse used.) As was the practice at the time, Prince Yoshihito was entrusted to the care of Prince Nakayama Tadayasu, in whose house he lived from infancy until the age of seven. Prince Yoshihito was officially declared heir on 31 August 1887, and had his formal investiture as crown prince on 3 November 1888. Marriage[edit] As emperor[edit]

Hirohito Hirohito (裕仁?), referred to as Emperor Shōwa in Japan (昭和天皇, Shōwa-tennō?, April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989), was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order, reigning from December 25, 1926, until his death in 1989. Early life[edit] Hirohito in 1902 as an infant Born in Tokyo's Aoyama Palace (now contained within the Akasaka Palace), Hirohito was the first son of Crown Prince Yoshihito (the future Emperor Taishō) and Crown Princess Sadako (the future Empress Teimei).[3] His childhood title was Prince Michi (迪宮, Michi no miya?). Prince Hirohito and British Prime Minister Lloyd George, 1921 When his grandfather, Emperor Meiji, died on July 30, 1912, Hirohito's father, Yoshihito, assumed the throne and Hirohito became the heir apparent. Hirohito attended the Y.M.C.A. of Gakushūin Peers' School from 1908 to 1914 and then a special institute for the crown prince (Tōgū-gogakumonsho) from 1914 to 1921. During Hirohito's regency, a number of important events occurred:

Q.E.D. Etymology and early use[edit] The phrase quod erat demonstrandum is a translation into Latin from the Greek ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι (hoper edei deixai; abbreviated as ΟΕΔ). Translating from the Latin into English yields, "what was to be demonstrated"; however, translating the Greek phrase ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι produces a slightly different meaning. Since the verb "δείκνυμι" also means to show or to prove,[2] a better translation from the Greek would read, "what was required to be proved Modern philosophy[edit] Philippe van Lansberge's 1604 Triangulorum Geometriæ used quod erat demonstrandum to conclude some proofs; others ended with phrases such as sigillatim deinceps demonstrabitur, magnitudo demonstranda est, and other variants.[4] In the European Renaissance, scholars often wrote in Latin, and phrases such as Q.E.D. were often used to conclude proofs. QEF[edit] There is another Latin phrase with a slightly different meaning, and less common in usage. Equivalents in other languages[edit] See also[edit]

Raymond A. Spruance Raymond Ames Spruance (July 3, 1886 – December 13, 1969) was a United States Navy admiral in World War II. Spruance was nicknamed "electric brain" for his calmness even in moments of supreme crisis: a reputation enhanced by his successful tactics at Midway.[2] Early life[edit] Spruance was born in Baltimore, Maryland to Alexander and Annie Spruance. Career prior to World War II[edit] Spruance ran a quiet bridge, without chit-chat; he demanded that orders be given concisely and clearly. Spruance began attendance at the Naval War College in 1926, and graduated in 1927. World War II[edit] Before Midway[edit] Spruance at Midway[edit] During the third week of May 1942 US naval intelligence units confirmed that the Japanese would—by early June—invade Midway Island. The battle commenced on the morning of June 4; the first several waves of US attack aircraft were badly beaten, both near Midway and at sea around the Japanese task force. In 1949 naval historian Samuel E.

House of Saud The House of Saud (Arabic: آل سعود‎ Āl Saʻūd) is the ruling royal family of Saudi Arabia. The family has thousands of members. It is composed of the descendants of Muhammad bin Saud and his brothers, though the ruling faction of the family is primarily led by the descendants of Abdulaziz bin Abdul Rahman Al Saud. The most influential member of the Royal family is the King of Saudi Arabia. The family is estimated to be composed of 15,000 members, but the majority of the power and wealth is possessed by a group of only about 2,000.[2][3] The House of Saud has gone through three phases: the First Saudi State, the Second Saudi State, and the modern nation of Saudi Arabia. Title[edit] Genealogical table of the leaders of the Āl Saud House of Saud is a translation of Al Saud. Today, the surname "Al Saud" is carried by any descendant of Muhammad bin Saud or his three brothers Farhan, Thunayyan, and Mishari. History[edit] Origins and early history[edit] First Saudi State[edit] Saudi Arabia[edit]

Vizier Not to be confused with visor. A vizier (/vɪˈzɪər/, rarely /ˈvɪzjər/;[1] وزير‎ in Arabic script (Arabic (Arabic pronunciation Wazeer), Persian: vazīr‎, Turkish: vezir, Urdu); Hindi: वज़ीर; sometimes spelled vazir, vizir, vasir, wazir, vesir, or vezir) is a high-ranking political advisor or minister. The Abbasid Caliphs gave the title wazir to a minister formerly called katib (secretary) who was at first merely a helper, but afterwards became the representative and successor of the dapir (official scribe or secretary) of the Sassanian kings.[2] Etymology[edit] The word entered into English in 1562 from the Turkish vezir ("counselor"), derived from the Arabic wazir ("viceroy"). Wazir itself has two possible etymologies: The most accepted[dubious ] etymology is that it is derived from the Arabic wazara ("to bear a burden"), from the Semitic root W-Z-R. Historical ministerial titles[edit] In Islamic states[edit] Modern post-monarchy use[edit] Anachronistic historical use[edit] Princely title[edit]