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Julius Caesar

Roman general and dictator Gaius Julius Caesar[a] ( SEE-zər, Latin: [ˈɡaːi.ʊs ˈjuːli.ʊs ˈkae̯.sar]; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman general and statesman who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus and Pompey formed the First Triumvirate, a political alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to amass power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. Caesar rose to become one of the most powerful politicians in the Roman Republic through a string of military victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC, which greatly extended Roman territory. During this time he both invaded Britain and built a bridge across the Rhine river. Early life and career Hearing of Sulla's death in 78 BC, Caesar felt safe enough to return to Rome. Conquest of Gaul Civil war Family

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Cisalpine Gaul Map of Cisalpine Gaul, extending from Veneto on the Adriatic, to Pisa and Nice on the Mediterranean, to Lake Geneva in the west, and the Alps in the North, from Abraham Ortelius' Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, the first modern atlas of the world. Antwerp, 1608. History[edit] Early history[edit] Peoples of Cisalpine Gaul during the 4th to 3rd centuries BC Pompey First century BC Roman general and politician Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus[a] (Classical Latin: [ˈŋnae̯.ʊs pɔmˈpɛjjʊs ˈmaŋnʊs]; 29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), usually known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great,[1] was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic. He came from a wealthy Italian provincial background; his father had been the first to establish the family among the nobiles (Roman nobility). Pompey's success as a general while still very young enabled him to advance directly to his first consulship without meeting the normal cursus honorum (requirements for office). His success as a military commander in Sulla's second civil war resulted in Sulla's bestowing upon him the cognomen Magnus ("the Great"), after Pompey's boyhood hero Alexander the Great. Early life and political debut[edit]

en.m.wikipedia A philippic (/fɪˈlɪpɪk/)[1] is a fiery, damning speech, or tirade, delivered to condemn a particular political actor. The term is most famously associated with two noted orators of the ancient world, the Roman Cicero and, most significantly, Demosthenes of Athens in his movement against the imperialist ambitions of Philip of Macedon. Demosthenes speeches, in 351 BC, denouncing the leader later became known as "The Philippics". en.m.wikipedia archaeology, Art museum, Historic site in Rome, Italy The Capitoline Museums (Italian: Musei Capitolini) is a single museum containing a group of art and archaeological museums in Piazza del Campidoglio, on top of the Capitoline Hill in Rome, Italy. The historic seats of the museums are Palazzo dei Conservatori and Palazzo Nuovo, facing on the central trapezoidal piazza in a plan conceived by Michelangelo in 1536 and executed over a period of more than 400 years. The history of the museum can be traced to 1471, when Pope Sixtus IV donated a collection of important ancient bronzes to the people of Rome and located them on the Capitoline Hill.

Promagistrate Ancient Roman office In ancient Rome a promagistrate (Latin: pro magistratu) was an ex-consul or ex-praetor whose imperium (the power to command an army) was extended at the end of his annual term of office or later. They were called proconsuls and propraetors. This was an innovation created during the Roman Republic. Initially it was intended to provide additional military commanders to support the armies of the consuls (the two annually elected heads of the Republic and its army) or to lead an additional army. Cato the Younger Roman statesman, general and writer Marcus Porcius Cato (; 95 BC – April 46 BC), also known as Cato of Utica (Latin: Cato Uticensis) or Cato the Younger (Cato Minor), was a conservative Roman senator in the period of the late republic. A noted orator and a follower of the Stoic philosophy, he is remembered for his stubbornness and tenacity (especially in his lengthy conflict with Julius Caesar), as well as his immunity to bribes, his moral integrity, and his famous distaste for the ubiquitous corruption of the period. His epithet "the Younger" distinguishes him from his great-grandfather, Cato the Elder.

en.m.wikipedia Basileus of Macedon Biography Youth and accession Philip was the youngest son of the king Amyntas III and Eurydice I. In his youth, Philip was held as a hostage in Illyria under Bardylis[5] and then was held in Thebes (c. 368–365 BC), which was then the leading city of Greece. While a captive there, Philip received a military and diplomatic education from Epaminondas, became eromenos of Pelopidas,[6][7] and lived with Pammenes, who was an enthusiastic advocate of the Sacred Band of Thebes. en.m.wikipedia Roman god of beginnings and doorways Janus had no flamen or specialised priest (sacerdos) assigned to him, but the King of the Sacred Rites (rex sacrorum) himself carried out his ceremonies. Janus had an ubiquitous presence in religious ceremonies throughout the year.

Verona Comune in Veneto, Italy Verona ( və-ROH-nə, Italian: [veˈroːna] ( listen); Venetian: Verona or Veròna; historical German: Bern, Welschbern, or Dietrichsbern) is a city on the Adige river in Veneto, Italy, with 258,108 inhabitants. It is one of the seven provincial capitals of the region. It is the second largest city municipality in the region and the third largest in northeast Italy. The metropolitan area of Verona covers an area of 1,426 km2 (550.58 sq mi) and has a population of 714,274 inhabitants.[3] It is one of the main tourist destinations in northern Italy because of its artistic heritage and several annual fairs, shows, and operas, such as the lyrical season in the Arena, an ancient Roman amphitheater.

Quintus Sertorius Early life and career[edit] Sertorius was born in Nursia (a town in which citizens had received Roman citizenship in 268 BC) in Sabine territory. The Sertorius family were minor aristocrats, almost certainly Equites Romani, the class directly below the senatorial class.[3] Like many other young domi nobiles Sertorius moved to Rome in his mid-to-late teens trying to make it big as an orator and jurist.[4] He made enough of an impression on the young Cicero to merit a special mention in a later treatise on oratory: Of all the totally illiterate and crude orators, well, actually ranters, I ever knew – and I might as well add 'completely coarse and rustic' – the roughest and readiest were Q. Sertorius ...[5]

en.m.wikipedia first emperor of the Roman Empire Princeps Civitatis After the demise of the Second Triumvirate, Augustus restored the outward façade of the free Republic, with governmental power vested in the Roman Senate, the executive magistrates, and the legislative assemblies. In reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic. By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme military command, and those of tribune and censor. It took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule.