Scientists discover how the brain encodes memories at a cellular level (Santa Barbara, Calif.) –– Scientists at UC Santa Barbara have made a major discovery in how the brain encodes memories. The finding, published in the December 24 issue of the journal Neuron, could eventually lead to the development of new drugs to aid memory. The team of scientists is the first to uncover a central process in encoding memories that occurs at the level of the synapse, where neurons connect with each other. "When we learn new things, when we store memories, there are a number of things that have to happen," said senior author Kenneth S. "One of the most important processes is that the synapses –– which cement those memories into place –– have to be strengthened," said Kosik. This is a neuron. (Photo Credit: Sourav Banerjee) Part of strengthening a synapse involves making new proteins. The production of new proteins can only occur when the RNA that will make the required proteins is turned on. When the signal comes in, the wrapping protein degrades or gets fragmented.
EcoGeek - Brains for the Earth The Human Body - A Dissection (Not for Weak Hearted People) | Vessels, Blood, Dissection, Nerves, Have From the tiniest veins, arteries and nerves to serial cross-sections of the spinal cord, these incredibly detailed dissections show and label most every part of the human body. The collection is the product of a 17-year collaboration between David L. Bassett, a School of Medicine alumnus and faculty member known for his elegant dissections and love for the human body, and William Gruber, the photographer who invented the View-Master stereoscopic viewing device. The partnership between the two resulted in the production of the Stereoscopic Atlas of Human Anatomy, which began in 1948, but was not not completed until 1962. A courtesy the Lane Medical Archives (thanks Drew!) A deep dissection of the side of the head shows the many blood vessels (red arteries, blue veins) and nerves (graying white) in the facial region. After the removal of an outer layer of bones around the jaw, the dissection shows blood vessels and sensory nerves to the lower teeth and chin. Dissection of lungs in situ.
Brain Explorer Astro Guyz Circadian rhythm Some features of the human circadian (24-hour) biological clock History The earliest recorded account of a circadian process dates from the 4th century B.C.E., when Androsthenes, a ship captain serving under Alexander the Great, described diurnal leaf movements of the tamarind tree. The observation of a circadian or diurnal process in humans is mentioned in Chinese medical texts dated to around the 13th century, including the Noon and Midnight Manual and the Mnemonic Rhyme to Aid in the Selection of Acu-points According to the Diurnal Cycle, the Day of the Month and the Season of the Year. The first recorded observation of an endogenous circadian oscillation was by the French scientist Jean-Jacques d'Ortous de Mairan in 1729. The term circadian was coined by Franz Halberg in the 1950s. Criteria To be called circadian, a biological rhythm must meet these three general criteria: Origin The simplest known circadian clock is that of the prokaryotic cyanobacteria.
history of science Halsall Home | Ancient History Sourcebook | Medieval Sourcebook | Modern History Sourcebook Other History Sourcebooks: African | East Asian | Indian | Islamic | Jewish | LGBT | Women's | Global This page is a subset of texts derived from the three major online Sourcebooks listed below. For more contextual information, for instance about the Islamic world, check out these web sites. In addition to direct links to documents, links are made to a number of other web resources. Link to a secondary article, review or discussion on a given topic. Link to one of the megasites which track web resources. Link to a website focused on a specific issue.. Earlier/Alternative Ways of Understanding the Cosmos The Agricultural Revolution of the 17th-18th Centuries The World Environment: Cornucopeian Plenty or a Crisis Situation Science, Technology and the Transformation in the Means of Production 2ND Thomas S. 2ND Babylonian and Egyptian Mathematics [At St. PreSocratics See 2ND Study Guide [At Brooklyn College]