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Proton

Proton
Related:  Atomic structure

Neutron The neutron is a subatomic hadron particle that has the symbol n or n0. Neutrons have no net electric charge and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton. With the exception of hydrogen-1, the nucleus of every atom consists of at least one or more of both protons and neutrons. Protons and neutrons are collectively referred to as "nucleons". While the bound neutrons in nuclei can be stable (depending on the nuclide), free neutrons are unstable; they undergo beta decay with a mean lifetime of just under 15 minutes (881.5±1.5 s).[5] Free neutrons are produced in nuclear fission and fusion. The neutron has been key to the production of nuclear power. Discovery[edit] In 1920, Ernest Rutherford conceived the possible existence of the neutron.[2][7] In particular, Rutherford considered that the disparity found between the atomic number of an atom and its atomic mass could be explained by the existence of a neutrally charged particle within the atomic nucleus. Intrinsic properties[edit]

Atomic orbital The shapes of the first five atomic orbitals: 1s, 2s, 2px, 2py, and 2pz. The colors show the wave function phase. These are graphs of ψ(x, y, z) functions which depend on the coordinates of one electron. To see the elongated shape of ψ(x, y, z)2 functions that show probability density more directly, see the graphs of d-orbitals below. Each orbital in an atom is characterized by a unique set of values of the three quantum numbers n, ℓ, and m, which correspond to the electron's energy, angular momentum, and an angular momentum vector component, respectively. Atomic orbitals are the basic building blocks of the atomic orbital model (alternatively known as the electron cloud or wave mechanics model), a modern framework for visualizing the submicroscopic behavior of electrons in matter. Electron properties[edit] Wave-like properties: The electrons do not orbit the nucleus in the sense of a planet orbiting the sun, but instead exist as standing waves. Particle-like properties: History[edit]

Electron History[edit] In the early 1700s, Francis Hauksbee and French chemist Charles François de Fay independently discovered what they believed were two kinds of frictional electricity—one generated from rubbing glass, the other from rubbing resin. From this, Du Fay theorized that electricity consists of two electrical fluids, vitreous and resinous, that are separated by friction, and that neutralize each other when combined.[17] A decade later Benjamin Franklin proposed that electricity was not from different types of electrical fluid, but the same electrical fluid under different pressures. He gave them the modern charge nomenclature of positive and negative respectively.[18] Franklin thought of the charge carrier as being positive, but he did not correctly identify which situation was a surplus of the charge carrier, and which situation was a deficit.[19] Discovery[edit] A beam of electrons deflected in a circle by a magnetic field[25] Robert Millikan Atomic theory[edit]

Parts of an Atom As of July 1, 2013 ThinkQuest has been discontinued. We would like to thank everyone for being a part of the ThinkQuest global community: Students - For your limitless creativity and innovation, which inspires us all. Teachers - For your passion in guiding students on their quest. Partners - For your unwavering support and evangelism. Parents - For supporting the use of technology not only as an instrument of learning, but as a means of creating knowledge. We encourage everyone to continue to “Think, Create and Collaborate,” unleashing the power of technology to teach, share, and inspire. Best wishes, The Oracle Education Foundation

Proton The proton is a subatomic particle with the symbol p or p+ and a positive electric charge of 1 elementary charge. One or more protons are present in the nucleus of each atom. Protons and neutrons are collectively referred to as "nucleons". The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is referred to as its atomic number. Since each element has a unique number of protons, each element has its own unique atomic number. In the modern Standard Model of particle physics, the proton is a hadron, and like the neutron, the other nucleon (particle present in atomic nuclei), is composed of three quarks. Because the proton is not a fundamental particle, it possesses a physical size—although this is not perfectly well-defined since the surface of a proton is somewhat fuzzy, due to being defined by the influence of forces that do not come to an abrupt end. At sufficiently low temperatures, free protons will bind to electrons. Description[edit] Stability[edit] p+ + e− → n + ν e Charge radius[edit]

Atomic nucleus A model of the atomic nucleus showing it as a compact bundle of the two types of nucleons: protons (red) and neutrons (blue). In this diagram, protons and neutrons look like little balls stuck together, but an actual nucleus (as understood by modern nuclear physics) cannot be explained like this, but only by using quantum mechanics. In a nucleus which occupies a certain energy level (for example, the ground state), each nucleon has multiple locations at once. The nucleus is the very dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom. It was discovered in 1911 as a result of Ernest Rutherford's interpretation of the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment performed by Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden under Rutherford's direction. The proton–neutron model of nucleus was proposed by Dmitry Ivanenko in 1932.[1] Almost all of the mass of an atom is located in the nucleus, with a very small contribution from the electron cloud. Introduction[edit] History[edit] Forces[edit]

Elementary particle In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle whose substructure is unknown, thus it is unknown whether it is composed of other particles.[1] Known elementary particles include the fundamental fermions (quarks, leptons, antiquarks, and antileptons), which generally are "matter particles" and "antimatter particles", as well as the fundamental bosons (gauge bosons and Higgs boson), which generally are "force particles" that mediate interactions among fermions.[1] A particle containing two or more elementary particles is a composite particle. Everyday matter is composed of atoms, once presumed to be matter's elementary particles—atom meaning "indivisible" in Greek—although the atom's existence remained controversial until about 1910, as some leading physicists regarded molecules as mathematical illusions, and matter as ultimately composed of energy.[1][2] Soon, subatomic constituents of the atom were identified. Overview[edit] Main article: Standard Model

Atom The atom is a basic unit of matter that consists of a dense central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons. The atomic nucleus contains a mix of positively charged protons and electrically neutral neutrons (except in the case of hydrogen-1, which is the only stable nuclide with no neutrons). The electrons of an atom are bound to the nucleus by the electromagnetic force. Likewise, a group of atoms can remain bound to each other by chemical bonds based on the same force, forming a molecule. An atom containing an equal number of protons and electrons is electrically neutral, otherwise it is positively or negatively charged and is known as an ion. Chemical atoms, which in science now carry the simple name of "atom," are minuscule objects with diameters of a few tenths of a nanometer and tiny masses proportional to the volume implied by these dimensions. Etymology History of atomic theory Atomism First evidence-based theory The structure of atoms The physicist J. Structure

Physics Various examples of physical phenomena Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines, perhaps the oldest through its inclusion of astronomy.[8] Over the last two millennia, physics was a part of natural philosophy along with chemistry, certain branches of mathematics, and biology, but during the Scientific Revolution in the 17th century, the natural sciences emerged as unique research programs in their own right.[b] Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms of other sciences[6] while opening new avenues of research in areas such as mathematics and philosophy. Physics also makes significant contributions through advances in new technologies that arise from theoretical breakthroughs. History Ancient astronomy Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences. Natural philosophy Classical physics Modern physics

Plasma (physics) Plasma (from Greek πλάσμα, "anything formed"[1]) is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and gas). When air or gas is ionized plasma forms with similar conductive properties to that of metals. Plasma is the most abundant form of matter in the Universe, because most stars are in plasma state.[2][3] Artist's rendition of the Earth's plasma fountain, showing oxygen, helium, and hydrogen ions that gush into space from regions near the Earth's poles. The faint yellow area shown above the north pole represents gas lost from Earth into space; the green area is the aurora borealis, where plasma energy pours back into the atmosphere.[6] Plasma is loosely described as an electrically neutral medium of positive and negative particles (i.e. the overall charge of a plasma is roughly zero). Range of plasmas. For plasma to exist, ionization is necessary. Lightning is an example of plasma present at Earth's surface.

Modelling molecular magnets The complete magnetic properties of the prototype molecular magnet Mn12 have been modelled, for the first time, by an international team of researchers. The calculations will be crucial for developing real-world devices from the material, as well as to study fundamental nanoscale quantum-phenomena such as magnetic tunnelling. Single-molecule magnets, such as Mn12, Fe8, Mn4 and V15, are natural ensembles of identical, weakly interacting magnetic nanoparticles that can switch their magnetization between two states, from "spin up" to "spin down" for example. At low temperatures, the magnetic state of the molecule persists even in the absence of a magnetic field. Such a "memory effect" could be exploited to make high-density information storage devices for computing applications and in molecular electronics in general. No 'adjustable parameters' Interactions are important

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